Throughout Scandinavia, there are many remaining burial mounds in honour of Viking kings and chieftains, in addition to runestones and other memorials. A prominent tradition is that the ship burial, where the deceased was laid in a boat, or a stone ship, and given grave offerings in accordance with his earthly status and profession, sometimes including sacrificed slaves. Afterwards, piles of stone and soil were usually laid on top of the remains in order to create a burial mound. It was common to leave gifts with the deceased.
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Ibn Fadlan was a faqih, an expert in the law and Muslim faith, though his life prior to his mission is largely unknown to history. Ibn Fadlan wrote about 30 pages of text on what he observed during his trip, including the Viking death rites.
Some excerpts follow: I was told that when their chieftains die, the least they do is to cremate them. I was very keen to verify this, when I learned of the death of one of  their great men. In the case of a poor man they build a small boat, place him inside and burn it.
They are addicted to alcohol, which they drink night and day. Sometimes one of them dies with the cup still in his hand. Usually, Ibn Fadlan wrote, slave girls made the offer. One girl volunteered for the spectacle Fadlan saw. A map showing Viking expansion between 8 th and 11th century. I myself saw her: a gloomy, corpulent woman, neither young nor old.
They clothed his body in trousers, leggings, boots, a silk caftan with gold buttons and put silk headgear with fringes and sable fur on his head. The Vikings chopped a dog in two and threw it on the ship. They put his weaponry next to him. They made two horses gallop until they sweated then cut them up and put the flesh on the ship. They also slaughtered a cow, a rooster and a hen and flung the dead animals onboard. Meanwhile, the slave-girl who wished to be killed was coming and going, entering one pavilion after another.
She placed her feet on the hands of the men and was raised above that door-frame. She said something and they brought her down. Then they lifted her up a second time and she did what she had done the first time. They brought her down and then lifted her up a third time and she did what she had done on the first two occasions. They next handed her a hen. She cut off its head and threw it away.
They took the hen and threw it on board the ship. Paradise is beautiful and verdant. He is accompanied by his men and his male-slaves.
He summons me, so bring me to him. The doomed slave girl drank alcohol and chanted. Six men had sex with the slave girl. Then they and the angel-crone killed her with dire violence. He walked backwards, with the back of his neck to the ship, his face to the people, with the lighted piece of wood in one hand and the other hand on his anus, being completely naked. He ignited the wood that had been set up under the ship after they had placed the slave-girl whom they had killed beside her master.
Then the people came forward with sticks and firewood. Each one carried a stick the end of which he had set fire to and which he threw on top of the wood. The wood caught fire, and then the ship, the pavilion, the man, the slave-girl and all it contained.
A dreadful wind arose and the flames leapt higher and blazed fiercely. The Vikings then built an earthen mound over the burned vessel. Modern archaeologists have been hoping to find it for decades. When a Viking king died, men and 40 slave girls died with him, Fadlan wrote. Keep in mind this death rite or orgy that Ibn Fadlan described was for a chief, and it happened among the warriors and leaders of the Viking society who were in the Volga viking. Presumably the farmers, hunters, bakers, craftsmen and other plain folk—the great majority of Viking society—did not practice this lurid death celebration.
Also, this was one Viking group at one point in the year history of the Viking raids and settlements, and we have no way of knowing how many Viking groups practiced these wild funeral celebrations over their vast territories.
A Viking Burial Described by Arab Writer Ahmad ibn Fadlan
JoJobar Ahmad ibn Rustah — Wikipedia They uncovered the men who were waiting in ambush and they killed those who had left [their positions]. Librarie du Liban,book 1, part 2, ; R. The image depicts ahmd epicyclic planetary model. The information rustzh his home town of Isfahan is especially extensive and valuable. He also mentions that the habit of cleaning ones teeth with a wooden toothpick dates back to pre-islamic times. Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians, such Uralic peoples included the Merya and the Muromians. Sources The account of the battle and its causes can we learn from the II.
Ahmad ibn Rustah
Ibn Fadlan was a faqih, an expert in the law and Muslim faith, though his life prior to his mission is largely unknown to history. Ibn Fadlan wrote about 30 pages of text on what he observed during his trip, including the Viking death rites. Some excerpts follow: I was told that when their chieftains die, the least they do is to cremate them. I was very keen to verify this, when I learned of the death of one of  their great men. In the case of a poor man they build a small boat, place him inside and burn it. They are addicted to alcohol, which they drink night and day. Sometimes one of them dies with the cup still in his hand.
The 10th century chronicle of the violent, orgiastic funeral of a Viking chieftain
The information on his home town of Isfahan is especially extensive and valuable. Ibn Rustah states that, while for other lands he had to depend on second-hand reports, often acquired with great difficulty and with no means of checking their veracity, for Isfahan he could use his own experience and observations or statements from others known to be reliable. Concerning the town itself, we learn that it was perfectly circular in shape, with a circumference of half a farsang , walls defended by a hundred towers, and four gates. Recorded information[ edit ] His information on the non-Islamic peoples of Europe and Inner Asia makes him a useful source for these obscure regions he was even aware of the existence of the British Isles and of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and for the prehistory of the Turks and other steppe peoples. They treat their slaves well and also they carry exquisite clothes, because they put great effort in trade. They have many towns. They have a most friendly attitude towards foreigners and strangers who seek refuge.