Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefazolin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated.
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Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefazolin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening.
Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an oral antibacterial drug clinically effective against C.
Careful clinical observation of the patient is essential. Cefazolin for Injection, as with all cephalosporins, should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. Cephalosporins may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity.
Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated. Prescribing Cefazolin for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Drug Interactions Probenecid may decrease renal tubular secretion of cephalosporins when used concurrently, resulting in increased and more prolonged cephalosporin blood levels. Positive direct and indirect antiglobulin Coombs tests have occurred; these may also occur in neonates whose mothers received cephalosporins before delivery. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Cefazolin for Injection, should only be used to treat bacterial infections.
They do not treat viral infections e. When Cefazolin for Injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed.
Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: 1 decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and 2 increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Cefazolin for Injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, mice and rabbits at doses up to 25 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Cefazolin for Injection.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Labor and Delivery When cefazolin has been administered prior to caesarean section, drug levels in cord blood have been approximately one quarter to one third of maternal drug levels.
The drug appears to have no adverse effect on the fetus. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness for use in premature infants and neonates have not been established. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects.
Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. The following reactions have been reported: Gastrointestinal Diarrhea, oral candidiasis oral thrush , vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, anorexia, and pseudomembranous colitis.
Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely. Allergic Anaphylaxis, eosinophilia, itching, drug fever, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Hematologic Neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia.
As with other cephalosporins, reports of hepatitis have been received. Renal As with other cephalosporins, reports of increased BUN and creatinine levels, as well as renal failure, have been received. Local Reactions Rare instances of phlebitis have been reported at site of injection.
Pain at the site of injection after intramuscular administration has occurred infrequently. Some induration has occurred. Other Reactions Genital and anal pruritus including vulvar pruritus, genital moniliasis, and vaginitis. Type of Infection.
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Proteus mirabilis Most isolates of indole positive Proteus Proteus vulgaris , Enterobacter spp. Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered to be the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Cefazolin for injection, USP is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of Cefazolin for Injection, USP in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present. Urinary Tract Infections: Due to E. Biliary Tract Infections: Due to E. Bone and Joint Infections: Due to S. Genital Infections: i.
Cefazolin for Injection USP 1 gram