Akinojas However, by the CIA and the army developed a series of superhallucinogens such as the highly touted BZwhich was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. Archived May 26,at the Wayback Machine. The investigation of the intelligence potential of biocommunications emphasizing an analytical study of the intrinsic capability of man as a biocommunications system and also an investigation of the conditions whereby his capability can be enhanced or augmented. Studies in Intelligence, March [76 Pages, 3.
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There is much published evidence that the project involved not only the use of drugs to manipulate persons, but also the use of electronic signals to alter brain functioning. It was first brought to wide public attention by the U. Congress in the form of the Church Committee and a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission see Revelation below and also to the U.
Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers. Origins Headed by Dr. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives.
The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War , and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control. Other early efforts focused on LSD, which appears to have formed the majority of research as time went on.
The experiments often took a sadistic turn. Gottlieb himself took LSD frequently, locking himself in his office and taking copious notes. Efforts to "recruit" subjects were often illegal even discounting the fact that drugs were being administered though actual use of LSD, for example, was legal in the United States until In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events.
The brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors and the "sessions" were taped for later viewing. In one case, a selection of volunteers were given LSD for 69 days straight. LSD was eventually dismissed by the researchers as too unpredictable in its effects. Another technique was connecting a barbiturate IV into one arm and an amphetamine IV into the other. The barbiturates were released into the subject first, and as soon as the subject began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released.
The subject would begin babbling incoherently at this point, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers. This treatment was discarded as it often resulted in the death of the patient from physical side effects of the drug combination, thus making further interrogation impossible. Other experiments involved heroin, mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana, alcohol , and sodium pentothal.
The file destruction undertaken at the order of CIA Director Richard Helms in makes a full investigation of claims impossible. Budget A secretive arrangement granted a percentage of the CIA budget. Ewen Cameron, author of the psychic driving concept which the CIA found particularly interesting. In it he described his theory on correcting madness, which consisted of erasing existing memories and rebuilding the psyche completely.
The CIA appears to have given him the potentially deadly experiments to carry out since they would be used on non-U. In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at 30 to 40 times the normal power.
His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced coma for weeks at a time up to three months in one case while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanently from his actions. It was during this era that Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations.
Cameron had also been a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal only a decade earlier. That report prompted investigations by both the U. Congress in the form of the Church Committee and a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission into the domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI , and intelligence-related agencies of the military. In the summer of , congressional hearings and the Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both cognizant and unwitting human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behaviour through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means.
They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD. Frank Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weapons researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in as part of a CIA experiment, and allegedly committed suicide a week later following a severe psychotic episode. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account suicidal tendencies Olson had been diagnosed as suffering from which might well have been exacerbated by the LSD.
Subsequent reports would show that another person, Harold Blauer, a professional tennis player in New York City , died as a result of a secret Army experiment involving mescaline. The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects".
The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers. Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission.
Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation. Following on the heels of the revelations about CIA experiments were similar stories about the Army. In response, in the Secretary of the Army instructed the Army Inspector General to conduct an investigation. Among the findings of the Inspector General was the existence of the then-still-classified Wilson memorandum.
The Inspector General also found that the requirements of the memorandum had, at least in regard to Army drug testing, been essentially followed as written. The Army used only "volunteers" for its drug-testing program, with one or two exceptions. However, the Inspector General concluded that the "volunteers were not fully informed, as required, prior to their participation; and the methods of procuring their services, in many cases, appeared not to have been in accord with the intent of Department of the Army policies governing use of volunteers in research.
It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, , which stated that between and , DOD and other national security agencies studied hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
The quote from the study Between and , the program consisted of projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects Legal issues involving informed consent The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting illegal experiments. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress.
Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a Supreme Court case, Feres v.
United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service. The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects.
This is the only Supreme Court case to address the application of the Nuremberg Code to experimentation sponsored by the U. And while the suit was unsuccessful, dissenting opinions put the Army—and by association the entire government—on notice that use of individuals without their consent is unacceptable. The limited application of the Nuremberg Code in U. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.
She dismissed the case in See Image:Ritchie. Some have argued that there is evidence that the assassin, Sirhan B.
More Than 4,000 New MKUltra Documents Requested From CIA After Crowdfunding Campaign
There is much published evidence that the project involved not only the use of drugs to manipulate persons, but also the use of electronic signals to alter brain functioning. It was first brought to wide public attention by the U. Congress in the form of the Church Committee and a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission see Revelation below and also to the U. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense.
CIA releases 13m pages of declassified documents online
The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors , and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study. The subjects were told that their "trips" would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people being interrogated this way were CIA employees, U. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas: he thought it could be used in covert operations.