EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH CRESWELL 4TH EDITION PDF

Using a multidisciplinary focus, author Nataliya V. Ivankova provides a scholarly and applied orientation to meet the varied epistemological and professional needs of scholar practitioners. The book is applicable to broad audiences with different levels of research skills, including students learning how to conduct research in practical settings, practitioners faced with the need to address pertinent issues in their professional practices, community leaders seeking to inform policy changes, and college faculty who teach research methods and conduct funded research in collaboration with practitioner-researchers and community stakeholders. A wide variety of pedagogical features make it appropriate for use as an instructional text aimed at developing skills in designing, conducting, implementing, and reporting an action research study that integrates mixed methods. The research applications presented in the textbook chapters help to make mixed method action research doable in areas that may not be reflected in previous thinking or past instructional methods for teaching research methodology. Figures and boxes [are] once again very valuable, organized, and clear for practitioner-researchers.

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Describe the characteristics of quantitative research. List and explain the different types of variables used in quantitative research. Explain the difference between experimental and nonexperimental quantitative research. Explain the concept of a correlation coefficient. Describe the characteristics of qualitative research. List and explain the differences among the different types of qualitative research introduced in this chapter. Describe the characteristics of mixed research.

Explain when each of the three major research paradigms quantitative, qualitative, and mixed would be appropriate to use. Multiple Choice 1. The variable that is presumed to cause changes in another variable is called a n : a. Categorical variable b. Dependent variable c.

Independent variable d. The variable that is presumed to be influenced by one or more independent variables is called a n : a. A variable that varies in type or kind is called a n : a. Researchers who want to design research studies that can support cause and effect conclusions most clearly are likely to carry out? Nonexperimental research b. Experimental research c. Correlational research d. A researcher does a study looking at an intervention designed to increase interest in Science among Girls.

She assigns 30 girls to the intervention and 30 girls to a no intervention group. In this study, she studies only girls. Girls in this study represent: a. A researcher is interested in the effects of teaching students problem-solving strategies on their abilities to solve complex mathematics problems.

She randomly assigns students to either learn the strategies, or participate in a control group. She then compares their performance on a complex problem-solving task. The student performance scores on the complex problem task are the: a. Independent variable b. Moderating variable d. A researcher is interested in the effects of a YouTube video on student learning of a topic in statistics e. He randomly assigns 50 students to one of two conditions. In one condition, the students read a traditional text.

In the second condition, students view a YouTube video. He measures their performance on a post-test. In this scenario, type of instruction text versus video serves as the: a.

A researcher carries out a study examining the effects of a new science program on scores on a standardized science test. He chooses two seventh-grade classes to carry out the study. After the study is done, he finds that group who received the new program performed better than the control group. He also discovers, however, that the group he chose to receive the new program had better prior science achievement. In this study, the prior science achievement is: a. An extraneous variable b.

The independent variable c. The dependent variable d. In this study, the dependent variable in this study is: a. Prior science achievement b. The type of science program c. Standardized science test scores d. A researcher carries out a study examining the effects of a new reading program on reading achievement as measured by a standardized test.

He chooses two first-grade classes to carry out the study. After the study is done, he finds that group who received the new reading program performed better than the control group. He also discovers, however, that the group he chose to receive the new program had better prior reading performance.

An extraneous variable in this study is: a. Prior reading performance b. The type of reading program c. Reading achievement standardized test scores d. A mediating variable is: a. An intervening variable b.

A variable the moderates a relationship c. Extraneous variable d. An extraneous variable is: a. A variable that moderates a relationship b. A dependent variable c. A variable that intervenes between one variable and another d. A synonym for independent variable is: a. Manipulated variable b. Extraneous variable c. Outcome variable d. A researcher calculates four correlation coefficients.

Which of these represents the largest correlation? A synonym for dependent variable is: a. Difficulty Level: easy A researcher studies achievement by children in poorly funded elementary schools. She develops a model that posits parent involvement as an important variable. She believes that parent involvement has an impact on children by increasing their motivation to do school work.

Thus, in her model, greater parent involvement leads to higher student motivation, which in turn creates higher student achievement. Student motivation is what kind of variable in this study? Confounding variable d.

Difficulty Level: Hard What kind of research is the inductive or exploratory scientific method most closely associated with? Quantitative b. Qualitative c. Correlational d. What kind of research is the deductive or confirmatory scientific method most closely associated with? What kind of research is characterized by pluralism?

In what kind of research involves collecting multiple types of data? In what kind of research does the researcher collect in-depth interview and participant observation data? A research studies how teachers interact when they eat lunch together.

She records the conversation and looks for themes, patterns, and meanings in the recorded conversation. What kind of research is the researcher carrying out? A mixed method study is one that uses: a. Two types of quantitative methods b.

Two levels of measurement: nominal and interval c. Two types of variables: independent and dependent d. The following scatter plot indicates: a.

No relationship b. A positive relationship c. A negative relationship d. Which type of research is more likely to be exploratory? Mixed d.

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