HELIGOLAND TREATY PDF

Germany Postage stamp showing Queen Victoria and denominated in Hamburg schillings. From its postage stamps were denominated in both sterling and gold marks. The British annexation of Heligoland was ratified by the Treaty of Paris signed on 30 May , as part of a number of territorial reallocations following the abdication of Napoleon as Emperor of the French. The island attracted artists and writers, especially from Germany and Austria who apparently enjoyed the comparatively liberal atmosphere, including Heinrich Heine and August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben.

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Germany Postage stamp showing Queen Victoria and denominated in Hamburg schillings. From its postage stamps were denominated in both sterling and gold marks. The British annexation of Heligoland was ratified by the Treaty of Paris signed on 30 May , as part of a number of territorial reallocations following the abdication of Napoleon as Emperor of the French.

The island attracted artists and writers, especially from Germany and Austria who apparently enjoyed the comparatively liberal atmosphere, including Heinrich Heine and August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben. More vitally it was a refuge for revolutionaries of the s and the German revolution. Marriage Proposal in Heligoland by Rudolf Jordan , As related in the Leisure Hour,[ clarification needed ] it was "a land where there are no bankers, no lawyers, and no crime; where all gratuities are strictly forbidden, the landladies are all honest and the boatmen take no tips", [12] while the English Illustrated Magazine[ full citation needed ] provided a description in the most glowing terms: "No one should go there who cannot be content with the charms of brilliant light, of ever-changing atmospheric effects, of a land free from the countless discomforts of a large and busy population, and of an air that tastes like draughts of life itself.

The newly unified Germany was concerned about a foreign power controlling land from which it could command the western entrance to the militarily-important Kiel Canal , then under construction along with other naval installations in the area and thus traded for it. Heligoland has an important place in the history of the study of ornithology, and especially the understanding of migration. Heligoland about —30 Under the German Empire , the islands became a major naval base, and during the First World War the civilian population was evacuated to the mainland.

The island was fortified with concrete gun emplacements along its cliffs similar to the Rock of Gibraltar. The islanders returned in , but during the Nazi era the naval base was reactivated. Lager Helgoland , the German labour camp on Alderney , was named after the island. Werner Heisenberg — first formulated the equation underlying his picture of quantum mechanics while on Heligoland in the s. He and Bohr went for long hikes in the mountains and discussed the failure of existing theories to account for the new experimental results on the quantum structure of matter.

Following these discussions, Heisenberg plunged into several months of intensive theoretical research but met with continual frustration. Finally, suffering from a severe attack of hay fever, he retreated to the treeless and pollenless island of Heligoland in the summer of There he conceived the basis of the quantum theory. In , construction began on a major reclamation project Project Hummerschere intended to expand existing naval facilities and restore the island to its pre dimensions.

The project was largely abandoned after the start of World War II and was never completed. Heligoland also had a military function as a sea fortress in the Second World War. Completed and ready for use were the submarine bunker North sea III, the coastal artillery , an air-raid shelter system with extensive bunker tunnels and the airfield with the air force — Jagdstaffel Helgoland April to October This shows the minor military significance of the island for British forces.

Through the development of the Luftwaffe , the island had largely lost its strategic importance. Shortly before the war ended in , Georg Braun and Erich Friedrichs succeeded in forming a resistance group.

Shortly before they were to execute the plans, however, they were betrayed by two members of the group. About twenty men were arrested on 18 April ; fourteen of them were transported to Cuxhaven. After a short trial, five resisters were executed by firing squad at Cuxhaven-Sahlenburg on 21 April Their names are Erich P.

Friedrichs, Georg E. Braun, Karl Fnouka, Kurt A. Pester, Martin O. With two waves of attacks on 18 and 19 April , 1, aircraft of the British Royal Air Force dropped about 7, bombs.

The majority of the population survived in the bomb shelters. The bomb attacks rendered the island uninhabitable, and it was evacuated.

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Zanzibar Treaty

Imperial German Postal Agency in Zanzibar with its staff Germany gained the islands of Heligoland German : Helgoland in the North Sea , originally part of Danish Holstein-Gottorp but since a British possession, the so-called Caprivi Strip in what is now Namibia , and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaam that would form the core of German East Africa later Tanganyika , now the mainland component of Tanzania. It immediately declared a protectorate over Zanzibar and, in the subsequent Anglo-Zanzibar War , gained full control of the sultanate. After the Berlin Conference , Germany had already lost the " Scramble for Africa ": the German East Africa Company under Carl Peters had acquired a strip of land on the Tanganyikan coast leading to the Abushiri Revolt , but had never had any control over the islands of the Zanzibar sultanate; the Germans gave away no vital interest. The misleading name for the treaty was introduced by ex-Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , who intended to attack his despised successor Caprivi for concluding an agreement that Bismarck himself had arranged during his incumbency.

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HELIGOLAND TREATY PDF

Heliggolandisland, Schleswig-Holstein Land statenorthwestern Germany. In addition to the Zambezi River, the strip also holds the Cuando and Kwando River, which marks the border with Botswana. Heligoland—Zanzibar Treaty — Wikipedia The islands are located in the Heligoland Bight part of the German Bight in the southeastern corner of the North Sea, and had a population of 1, heligoalnd the end of List Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Tenure Portrait Incumb German Empire Domestic In the unified Deutsches Reich afterReichskommissars were appointed to oversee special tasks. The Zambezi Region, until known as the Caprivi Region, is one of the 14 regions of Namibia, located in the extreme north-east of the country. Under an agreement concluded on 8 Octoberthe Trezty relinquished sovereignty over his remaining territory in Kenya.

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Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty

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