IRVINGIA WOMBOLU PDF

View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. However, due to formaldehyde emission from the composite products bonded with these adhesives and its carcinogenicity, there is a growing need for green alternatives from renewable sources. There is again interest in the domestication of the Irvingia tree species due to the potential use of various parts of the tree as raw materials for a wide range of applications such as biodiesel production, cosmetics, perfumes, soap and weight-loss supplements. The aim of this study was to extensively investigate the properties and potential use of Irvingia gabonensis IG and Irvingia wombolu IW kernel extracts as natural wood adhesives with desirable bonding properties. Irvingia gum was extracted from the kernels of IG and IW through three extraction methods.

Author:Zolorisar Kishura
Country:Switzerland
Language:English (Spanish)
Genre:Sex
Published (Last):15 December 2004
Pages:85
PDF File Size:11.85 Mb
ePub File Size:13.80 Mb
ISBN:909-4-45219-111-3
Downloads:81664
Price:Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader:Moogujas



View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. However, due to formaldehyde emission from the composite products bonded with these adhesives and its carcinogenicity, there is a growing need for green alternatives from renewable sources.

There is again interest in the domestication of the Irvingia tree species due to the potential use of various parts of the tree as raw materials for a wide range of applications such as biodiesel production, cosmetics, perfumes, soap and weight-loss supplements. The aim of this study was to extensively investigate the properties and potential use of Irvingia gabonensis IG and Irvingia wombolu IW kernel extracts as natural wood adhesives with desirable bonding properties.

Irvingia gum was extracted from the kernels of IG and IW through three extraction methods. The extracts were characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared FTIR spectroscopy to examine functional groups that are present in the extract. Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA was used to investigate the thermal stability and decomposition parameters of the extracts.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC analysis was used to determine melting parameters of the extracts. The strength properties of the extracts were tested using a standard method based on the use of glass fibre paper strips. The FTIR spectra of the Irvingia extracts indicate that absorption peak areas of the hydroxyl group decreased with the increase in carbohydrate content. The TGA results showed that the initial decomposition temperature of all extracts, ranges from The curing temperature could therefore be set around oC.

It was discovered through DSC analysis that Irvingia adhesives have a lower melting temperature compared with other wood adhesives. The strength properties results showed that tensile strength per gram of the kernel extracts ranged from 5.

The moduli of elasticity ranged from To enhance the strength properties of the extracts, further investigation was carried out on the effect of four different modifiers on Irvingia kernel extracts earmarked for use as natural wood adhesives. Hexamethometylmelamine Hexamine was used as a crosslinker to develop an effective crosslinking reaction between methoxyl groups in hexamine and hydroxyl groups in the extracts, modifiers and wood. The successful modification of the Irvingia-based wood adhesives was proven with the emergence of new peaks in the FTIR results.

The DSC results showed that the curing temperatures of all Irvingia adhesives are in a close range, irrespective of species and modification methods between and oC. The shear strength of the modified adhesives ranged from 1. In a nutshell, modification of the Irvingia-based adhesives resulted in better properties, which contributed to the strength of the adhesives as observed in this study.

The main advantage of these modified adhesives is that they do not contain formaldehyde or phenol, both of which are considered potent environmental contaminants.

Finally, the possibility of using the natural-based adhesive derived from Irvingia kernel extracts on wood panel products was examined. These panels are recommended to be used as core material for solid doors. Die gebruikse sluit in bio-diesel produksie, kosmeties, perfuum, seep, gewig verlies aanvullers en dies meer.

Irvingia gom was onttrek van die pitte van IG en IW deur drie onttrekkings metodes. Die ekstraksie was geklassifiseerd volgens die Fourier Transvorm Infrarooi FTIR spektroskopie om die funksionele groepe wat teenwoordig is te eksamineer. Termogravimetriese Analise TGA was gebruik om termiese stabiliteit en ontbindingsparameters te ondersoek.

Die sterkte eienskappe van die ekstraksies is bepaal deur die standaard metode van glasvesel-papier repe. Die FTIR spektra van die Irvingia ekstrasies toon die absorbsie piek areas van die hidroksielgroep verminder in koolhidraat inhoud. Die TGA resultate toon dat die aanvanklike ontbindings temperatuur van al die ekstraksies, wissel tussen Die sterkte eienskappe resultate toon dat trekkrag per gram van die pit ekstraksies wissel tussen 5. Die modulus van elastisiteit wissel van Verdere ondersoek is ingestel om die sterkte eienskappe van die Irvingia ekstraksies te verbeter deur middel van vier natuurlike aanvullers vir hout lym te gebruik.

Die lym eienskappe van die gemodifiseerde ekstraksies was getoets op hout spaanders volgens die Amerikaanse Gemeenskap vir Toets en Materiaal standaarde ASTM D — Die verbeterde gewysigde Irvingia hout gebaseerde lym was bewys deur die verskyning van nuwe FTIR piek resultate. Die DSK resultate toon dat die set temperatuur — oC van al die Irvingia ekstrasies naby mekaar is, ten spyte van spesie en modifiserings metode. Die skuifkrag van die gemodifiseerde lyme wissel van 1. In kort, die modifisering van die Irvingia gebaseerde lyme, het beter resultate tot gevolg gehad wat bydra tot die sterkte van die lym in die studie.

Die hoof voordele van die lyme is dat hulle nie formaldehied of fenol, beide is skadelik vir die omgewing, bevat nie. Laastens, die moontlikheid van die gebruik van natuurlike lyme vanaf Irvingia pit ekstraksies op hout bord produkte, was ondersoek. Die panele word aanbeveel vir die gebruik as kern-materiaal in soliede deure.

LA TIA JULIA MARIO VARGAS LLOSA PDF

The PFAF Bookshop

Les fruits de Irvingia gabonensis ont un mйsocarpe sucrй et sont consommйs frais, alors que ceux de Irvingia wombulu ont un mйsocarpe amer et ne sont pas destinйs а la consommation locale. Les deux espиces produisent des amandes comestibles, utilisйes pour des prйparations culinaires. Ce travail a pour objectif de fournir au moins une premiиre йtape dans le processus de standardisation de la qualitй de cette matiиre premiиre, pour accroоtre а la fois les revenus des producteurs et ceux des marchands. Mots clйs: Irvingia gabonensis, I.

ALGIS UZDAVINYS PDF

Irvingia wombolu

.

LAMBDA-CALCULUS AND COMBINATORS AN INTRODUCTION PDF

.

KRAMER WAV-6H PDF

.

Related Articles