Its publication was a major event in the Soviet humanities, laying the groundwork for a new school of thought that would be at the center of methodological debates for the next twenty years see Shukman. Structuralism was often accused by orthodox Soviet Marxists of amounting to a neo-formalist approach. Lotman gives formalism its due, but sees structuralism as a more comprehensive methodology. While formalism focuses on the formal aspects of the literary text, structuralism explores the content embodied within the form, understood as the semiotic structure of language imbued with meanings.
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Approaches to literary space[ edit ] The past approach[ edit ] Space in the 20th century was regarded as a part of various literary spheres, such as the narrative situation. It changed only in the last decade of the period.
Since then literary space has been treated as an independent and unique entity, semantic centre of the work, while such notions as the time of action or characters became its particularizations. He argued that the information provided by the text about space is incomplete and, consequently, space also is not complete. What is more, Lotman broached in his literary studies the question of the relationship between space in the text and space of the real world. However, while additional senses are imposed on textual space by cultural codes, extratextual space uses the reworked ones.
Through textual hints described customs, clothing, etc. Limited just like description  , such an authorial model does not exist beyond the textual frames and is composed of relations resulting from senses imposed on space. Those, in turn, may suggest non-spatial meanings e. In a literary work, space models different relations of the world-picture: temporary, social, ethical and others. It is vital not only to imagine space but also to follow the narration, the description, and the course of action, since all those may shape the fictitious reality by imposing the additional meanings on it.
This system is more abstract one than the previous one. It does not refer to how an individual work shapes space but how it is conventionally done by a given epoch, genre, etc. So, for instance, one of the main features of Gothic novels are elements of the supernatural and the sublime  , therefore, texts are full of ghosts, vampires and so on. Every language models space in a different manner. In short, it can be said that language organises space in a way, defines it, and provides terms for various types of spatial arrangements.
It is especially crucial to space when it is introduced to the implied reader. The spatial relationship would be impossible to define without description. Certain elements of the description relate to each other not only on the grammatical but also semantic level. For example, there are relations between words and phrases. Added-on meanings imposed on particular fragments of a text are, for instance, the consequence of such relations.
Description producing scenery may consist of a single block of text or scenery can be the effect of numerous descriptive references in such a text put together.
They are a structure caring added-on meanings. It is physical, 3-dimensional and, therefore, can be experienced by readers e. The second type is space only in a metaphorical sense, a set of conventions, of common fields of references for a certain piece of writing. It may refer either to other texts or literary traditions just like J.
What is more, it is 3-dimensional to characters and infinite lines of length, etc. The symbolical type of space  is the way in which culture arranges it. It is the most primary type of spatial organisation, and it is so crucial due to its metaphysical and eschatological dimension but only when some additional meanings are endows otherwise semantically neutral space.
The mathematical type of space can be divided further into topological and geometrical spaces. The former shows how space is perceived in both cultural and mythological way, having much in common with a symbolical space, the latter uses map features, e. Prace wybrane. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Janus and M. Warszawa: PIW. The Structure of the Artistic Text. The Literary Work of Art.
His elder sister Inna Obraztsova graduated from Leningrad Conservatory and became a composer and lecturer of musical theory, his younger sister Victoria Lotman was a prominent cardiologist, and his third sister Lidia Lotman was a scholar of Russian literature of the second half of the 19th century on staff at the Institute for Russian Literature of the Russian Academy of Science Pushkin House she lived in Saint-Petersburg. Lotman graduated from the secondary school in with excellent marks and was admitted to Leningrad State University without having to pass any exams. His professors at university were the renowned lecturers and academicians — Gukovsky , Azadovsky , Tomashevsky and Propp. He was drafted in and during World War II served as a radio operator in the artillery. Demobilized from the army in , he returned to his studies in the university and received his diploma with distinction in His first published research papers focused on Russian literary and social thought of the 18th and 19th century.