Gli ebrei allora viventi nei diversi regni della Spagna avevano i loro standard a cui fare appello. Diverse ragioni indussero Karo a collegare il suo lavoro con il " Tur ", invece del codice di Maimonide. A differenza del Tur, il codice di Maimonide include tutti i campi della legge ebraica, sia con rilevanza attuale sia con prospettiva passata e futura come le leggi dei sacrifici, il Messia, i Re, ecc. Per Karo, il cui interesse consisteva nel pronunciarsi su questioni pratiche, il Tur sembrava una scelta migliore.
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He concludes that this would then account for those seemingly self-contradictory instances in the Shulchan Aruch. But he abandoned this idea because, as he wrote:  "Who has the courage to rear his head aloft among mountains, the heights of God?
Karo very often decides disputed cases without necessarily considering the age and importance of the authority in question, expressing simply his own views. For Karo, whose interest lay in ruling on the practical issues, the Tur seemed a better choice. Karo finished his work "Bet Yosef" first, and it was first presented to the Rema as a gift from one of his students.
After looking through the Bet Yosef, the Rema realized that Karo had mainly relied upon Sephardic poskim. By incorporating these other opinions, Isserles actually addressed some major criticisms regarding what many viewed as the arbitrary selection of the three authorities upon whose opinions Karo based his work.
The halachic rulings in the Shulchan Aruch generally follow the Sephardic custom. The Rema added his glosses and published them as a commentary on the Shulchan Aruch, specifying whenever the Sephardic and Ashkenazic customs differ. The importance of the minhag "prevailing local custom" is also a point of dispute between Karo and Isserles: while Karo held fast to original authorities and material reasons, Isserles considered the minhag as an object of great importance, and not to be omitted in a codex.
Reception[ edit ] Karo wrote the Shulchan Aruch in his old age, for the benefit of those who did not possess the education necessary to understand the Beit Yosef.
Shulchan Aruch has been "the code" of Rabbinical Judaism for all ritual and legal questions that arose after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. The author himself had no very high opinion of the work, remarking that he had written it chiefly for "young students". The Shulchan Aruch achieved its reputation and popularity not only against the wishes of the author, but, perhaps, through the very scholars who criticized it.
The history of the Shulchan Aruch is, in a way, identical with the history of rabbinical literature of the Jews in Poland for a period of two centuries. German Jewish authorities had been forced to give way to Polish ones as early as the beginning of the sixteenth century. Karo had already been opposed by several Sephardic contemporaries, Yom Tov Tzahalon , who designated the Shulchan Aruch as a book for "children and ignoramuses",  and Jacob Castro, whose work Erekh ha-Shulchan consists of critical glosses to the Shulchan Aruch.
Further in response to those who wished to force the rulings of the Shulchan Aruch upon those communities following Rambam , Karo wrote: Who is he whose heart conspires to approach forcing congregations who practice according to the RaMBaM of blessed memory, to go by any one of the early or latter-day Torah authorities?! Whoever practices according to him with his leniencies and his stringencies, why coerce them to budge from him? And all the more so if also their fathers and forefathers practiced accordingly: for their children are not to turn right or left from the RaMBaM of blessed memory.
And even if communities that practice according to the Rosh or other authorities like him became the majority, they cannot coerce the minority of congregations practicing according to the RaMBaM of blessed memory, to practice like they do.
Similarly, many later halachic authorities predicated the acceptance of the authority of the Shulchan Aruch on the lack of an existing and widely accepted custom to the contrary. Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel[ edit ] Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel known as "Maharal", — wrote: To decide halakhic questions from the codes without knowing the source of the ruling was not the intent of these authors.
Had they known that their works would lead to the abandonment of Talmud , they would not have written them. It is better for one to decide on the basis of the Talmud even though he might err, for a scholar must depend solely on his understanding. As such, he is beloved of God, and preferable to the one who rules from a code but does not know the reason for the ruling; such a one walks like a blind person.
Besides this, we see that many legal doubts arise daily, and are mostly the subject of scholarly debate, necessitating vast wisdom and proficiency to arrive at a sufficiently sourced ruling If one does not find their statements correct and is able to maintain his own views with evidence that is acceptable to his contemporaries This then became broadly accepted among Jewish communities around the world as the binding Jewish legal code.
Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschutz in particular writes at length about how the great breadth of the work would make it impossible to constantly come to the correct conclusion if not for the "spirit of God".
Therefore, says Eybeschutz, one can not rely on a view not presented by the Shulchan Aruch. He contends that the reason one can not rely on a view not formulated in the Shulchan Aruch is because the Shulchan Aruch was accepted by all of Jewry.
Even while sleeping in bed at night he should cover himself entirely with a sheet. Even when he enters a lavatory to relieve himself, he should uncover himself only to the extent that is necessary, and nothing at all beyond that, as will be explained. He will thus not be even slightly uncovered, even for a moment, unnecessarily. So, too, if a person does not go to sleep undressed, but merely removes his socks, he should first cover his feet with a sheet and remove his socks under the sheet. Likewise, when one rises from sleep, 10 he should put on his shirt by stages while he is covered by a sheet and still lying down, so that he will not be even slightly uncovered, even for a moment, unnecessarily. For in these lands people never walk barefoot, even in the summer, and thus the feet are always covered.
Shulchan Aruch: Chapter 2 - Laws Relating to Dressing
Shakami Simply print out a in various formats, or use this handy to order a free pocket calendar Hebrew shulchan aruch portugues or Kitzur Shulchan Aruch books in several shulchan aruch portugues. Following its initial appearance, many rabbis criticised the appearance of this latest code of Jewish law, echoing similar criticisms of previous codes of law. The later major halachic authorities  defer to both Karo and Isserles and cite their work as the baseline from which further suulchan rulings evolve. Thirty-two authorities, beginning with the Talmud and ending with shulchan aruch portugues works of Rabbi Israel Isserlein — and known as the Terumath ha-Deshenare summarized and critically discussed in Beth Yosef. A modern commentator, Rabbi Menachem Elon explains:. Shulchan aruch in Turkish.
Shulchan Aruch Harav