GREGORY MANKIW MAKROEKONOMI PDF

I would like to tell you about her. My mother was born on July 18, , the second child of Nicholas and Catherine Sawchak. Nicholas and Catherine were immigrants from Ukraine. They came to the United States as teenagers, arriving separately, neither with more than a fourth-grade education. Catherine was from a farming area in western Ukraine. She left because her family wanted her to marry an older man rather than her younger boyfriend, who had been conscripted into the army.

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I would like to tell you about her. My mother was born on July 18, , the second child of Nicholas and Catherine Sawchak. Nicholas and Catherine were immigrants from Ukraine.

They came to the United States as teenagers, arriving separately, neither with more than a fourth-grade education. Catherine was from a farming area in western Ukraine. She left because her family wanted her to marry an older man rather than her younger boyfriend, who had been conscripted into the army. Her first job here was as a maid. Nicholas was from Kiev, where he had been trained to be a furrier.

In the United States, he worked as a potter, making sinks and toilettes. When Nicholas and Catherine came to the United States, they thought they might return home to Ukraine eventually.

Nicholas and Catherine met each other, married, and settled in a small row house in Trenton, New Jersey, where they lived the rest of their lives. Catherine and Nicholas had two children, my uncle Walter and my mother Dorothy. Nicholas and Catherine were hardworking and frugal. They saved enough to send Walter to college and medical school.

He served as a physician in the army during the Korean war. He said no, he worked closer to the front. He patched up the wounded soldiers the best he could and then sent them to a MASH unit to recover and receive more treatment. After the war, he became a pathologist in a Trenton-area hospital. He married and had two daughters, my cousins. My mother attended Trenton High School the same high school, I learned years later, attended by the economist Robert Solow at about the same time.

She danced ballet. She water-skied on the Delaware River. She loved to read and go to the movies. In part because of limited resources and in part because of the gender bias of the time, my mother was not given the chance to go to college. Years later, her parents would say that not giving her that opportunity was one of their great regrets.

Instead, my mother learned to be a hairdresser. She was also pressured to marry the son of some family friends. The marriage did not work. They divorced, and she kicked him out of her life. But the marriage did leave her with one blessing—my sister Peg. My mother continued life as a single mother. Some years later, she met my father, also named Nicholas, through social functions run by local Ukrainian churches.

They both loved to dance. He wanted to marry her, but having been burned once, she was reluctant at first. Only when she realized that he had become her best friend did she finally accept.

He worked there until his retirement. One of his specialties was battery design. When I was growing up, I thought it sounded incredibly boring.

Now I realize how important it is. My mother then stopped working as a hairdresser to become a full-time mom. But she kept all the hairdresser equipment from her shop—chair, mirrors, scissors, razors, and so on—in our basement.

She would cut the hair of her friends on a part-time basis. When I was a small boy, she cut my hair as well. I attended the Brookside School, the public grade school which was a short walk from our house. When I was in the second or third grade, my mother was called in to see the teacher. The class had been given some standardized aptitude test. I was talkative and inquisitive at home but shy and lackluster at school. I needed a change.

She started looking around for the best school she could find for me. She decided it was The Pingry School, an independent day school about a dozen miles from our house. She had me apply, and I was accepted. The question then became, how to pay for it? Pingry was expensive, and we did not have a lot of extra money.

My mother decided that she needed to return to work. She started looking for a job, and an extraordinary opportunity presented itself. Union County, where we lived, was opening a public vocational school, and they were looking for teachers. She applied to be the cosmetology teacher and was hired. There was, however, a glitch. The teachers, even though teaching trades like hairdressing, needed teacher certification. That required a certain number of college courses, and my mother had not taken any.

So she got a temporary reprieve from the requirement. While teaching at the vocational school during the day, she started taking college courses at night to earn her certification, all while raising two children. My mother taught at the vocational school until her retirement. When my parents both retired, they were still the best of friends. They traveled together, exploring the world in ways that were impossible when they were younger and poorer.

During my third year as an economics professor, I was visiting the LSE for about a month. I encouraged my parents to come over to London for a week or so. They had a grand time. I believe it was the first time they had ever visited Europe. When I was growing up, vacations were usually at the Jersey shore. My father died a few years later. My mother spent the next three decades living alone. The house was close to the ocean and large enough to encourage her growing family to come for extended visits.

Two children, five grandchildren, four great-grandchildren. The more, the merrier. Nothing made her happier than being surrounded by family. My mother loved to cook, especially the Ukrainian dishes she learned in her childhood. Holubtsi stuffed cabbage was a specialty. Another was kapusta cabbage soup. One time, the local newspaper offered to publish her kapusta soup recipe.

They did so, but with an error. Every seasoning that was supposed to be measured in teaspoons was printed as tablespoons.

The paper later ran a correction but probably to no avail. I am not sure if anyone ever tried the misprinted recipe and, if so, to what end. During her free time in her later years, my mother read extensively, played FreeCell on her computer, and watched TV. She suggested we watch the first episode. And then another. And another. After I left, she binge-watched all five seasons. As she aged, living alone became harder.

When she had trouble going up and down the stairs, an elevator was added to her house. But slowly her balance faltered, and she fell several times. She started having small strokes, and then a more significant one. She moved into a nursing home.

Whenever I visited, I brought her new books to read. Her love of reading never diminished. This is, I am afraid, where the story ends. Yesterday, she died. I will miss her.

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His grandparents were all Ukrainians. After college, Mankiw spent a year working on his Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a subsequent year studying at Harvard Law School. He worked as a staff economist for the Council of Economic Advisers from —83, foreshadowing his later position as Chairman of that organization. He returned to Harvard Law for a year but, having completed his PhD and realizing he was better at economics, [22] he left to teach at MIT for a year and then became an assistant professor of economics at Harvard University in

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