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Intuition and case studies are not mutually exclusive; they can even be complementary, with the case study confirming or invalidating the intuition. But this is not the problem. The real problem is at the level of generalization or more specifically, at the level of the argument supporting the generalization. However, Porter is silent on this point.

For the moment, we bring up another objection. According to Popper, a proposition is not true because it has been verified by one or several empirical experiences, as is claimed by rigid positivism.

It is true for only so long as an example does not contradict it, that is, until it has been falsified. With respect to the number of competitive forces, it is simple enough to imagine a good number of industries in which other competitive forces are much more determinant than those identified by Porter: government in the arms and pharmaceutical industries; non-government organizations in the hydrocarbon industry, etc.

The process of enactment is the process through which we proactively shape and structure our realities in an unconscious manner. Omar Aktouf. For Habermas, the morality of a given utterance depends on the dialogical exchange made up of a claim to validity by a speaker, objections to this claim by other speakers, and arguments by the speaker in response to these objections, all of which occurs within the framework of a space of free speech.

This domination is exercised by expert analysts and their constituents, senior management. In this event, it is no longer the environment that determines corporate strategy, but the reverse.

Over 30 years ago, this position was seriously discussed, illustrated and confirmed with concrete, edifying examples Galbraith, In particular, Galbraith showed how the strategic planning of certain GM and Ford car models his analysis focused on the Mustang, for which six years elapsed between the design phase and the marketing phase contributed to determining — in defiance of all socalled market laws — internal and external salaries as well as the price of products such as rubber, iron, coal, steel, etc.

As we have seen, this industry must display competitive forces that are favourable to the business. Is it possible to do this before the fact? It is possible but only in particular cases and given a condition which is impossible to fulfill. Positioning a business in an industry through the analysis of competitive forces can occur in the case of an entrepreneurial situation in which the business or the business division does not yet exist.

For it is difficult to imagine an industry, that really exists, with such favourable conditions for a business to be able to exercise its domination, that is, with businesses that have never considered the possibilities offered by their industry.

But in this case, how did these businesses make decision before the appearance of this model?


Karim Aktouf





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