Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The occurrence of collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October to April A total of 2, snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp.
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Glossary Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. Palearctic living in the northern part of the Old World. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. For example, diseases caused by infection of filarial nematodes elephantiasis and river blindness.
Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons or periodic condition changes. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms.
Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. In other words, India and southeast Asia. Host castration as a parasitic strategy.
Evolution, Brown, K. Leathers, D. Trematode prevalence and the population dynamics of freshwater pond snails. American Midland Naturalist, Dimitrov, V. Kanev, R. Sorensen, M. Alxexiev, M. Nestorov, V. Studies on the argentophilic structures of two populations of Echinostoma revolutum Frolich, Trematoda:Echinostomatidae miracidia. Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, 3: Humphries, J. Reddy, B. Kanev, I. Fried, V. Redescription of Echinostoma trivolvis Cort, with a discussion on its identity.
Systematic Parasitology, Life-cycle, delimitation and redescription of Echinostoma revolutum Froelich, Trematoda: Echinostomatidae. Sorensen, R. Kanev, B. Fried, D. The occurrence and identification of Echinostoma revolutum from North American Lymnaea elodes snails.
Journal of Parasitology, 83 1 : Parasite influences on host life history: Echinostoma revolutum parasitism of Lymnaea elodes snails. Oecologia, Suhardono, , J. Roberts, D. Biological control of Fasciola gigantica with Echinostoma revolutum. Veterinary Parasitology,
Distribution[ edit ] Echinostoma revolutum is the most widely distributed species of all 20 Echinostomatidae species; it is found in Asia, Oceania, Europe, and the Americas. This parasite is predominantly found throughout North America. Two asexual generations occur in a snail or mollusk. The first snail host is penetrated by a miracidium , producing a sporocyst.
Resources Causal Agents The trematode family Echinostomatidae includes numerous spiny-collared intestinal flukes known to infect humans. Infections are documented mostly from members of the genera Echinostoma E. Sporadic infections with members of other echinostomid genera including Echinoparyphium, Acanthoparyphium, Artyfechinostomum, Episthmium, Himasthla, Hypoderaeum, and Isthmiophora are known. Life Cycle Like many trematodes, echinostomid flukes undergo a multi-host indirect life cycle. Unembryonated eggs are passed in feces of infected definitive hosts and develop in water. Miracidia usually take about 3 weeks to mature before hatching , after which they swim freely and penetrate the first intermediate host, a snail.