EN 13445-1 PDF

Part 4: Fabrication. Part 5: Inspection and testing. Part 6: Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from spheroidal graphite cast iron. CR , Unfired pressure vessels - Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures. As such the manufacture of unfired pressure vessels requires the application of all the relevant Parts in order for the requirements of the Standard to be satisfactorily fulfilled. It defines terms, definitions and symbols applicable to unfired pressure vessels.

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The manufacturer in selecting an appropriate weld detail should give consideration to: a the method of manufacture; the service conditions e. Other weld details may be used. NOTE 1 Annex A of EN gives figures of the joints in finished condition, design requirements mainly on geometry, a list of applicable testing groups, recommendations for prevention of lamellar tearing and corrosion. These details show sound and commonly accepted practice.

It is not intended that these are considered mandatory or should restrict development of welding technology any way and as a result other suitable weld details may be used. For the pressure retaining welds of a pressure vessel this shall be achieved by performing welding procedure approval tests in accordance with EN ISO or by preproduction tests in accordance with EN ISO In addition to the requirements of EN ISO the following tests shall apply: a For test plates on butt joints equal to or over 20 mm thickness a longitudinal weld tensile test having a minimum diameter equal to or over 6 mm shall be performed in accordance with EN and Ret, Rm and A5 shall satisfy the specified minimum requirements of the base material or for weld consumables requirements in EN , clause 4.

NOTE 1 It is important that special consideration is given where the mechanical properties of the weld are below the base materials by design, e. The ferrite content shall be measured by metallographic methods.

If the welding consumables are of non-matching type i. Impact test: The testing and the acceptance criteria shall conform to EN ISO ; in addition, the impact test requirements in accordance with EN , Annex B shall apply. For austenitic steels see also Clause 8.

For welds other than pressure retaining welds directly attached to the pressure vessels e. NOTE 4 For all test coupons it is permissible for a manufacturer to subcontract preparation of test pieces and their testing but not the welding of the test pieces.

NOTE 1 The training, supervision and control of welders and welding operators is the responsibility of the manufacturer. An up-to-date list of welders and welding operators together with records of their approval test shall be maintained by the manufacturer.

The prolongation every 6 months and re-approval every 2 years shall be carried out in accordance with EN The evidence in support of the prolongation and re-approval shall be maintained for at least 2 years.

The filler metals and auxiliary materials shall be documented, and shall be suitable for use with the parent metals, the welding processes and the fabricating conditions. All welding consumables shall be stored and handled with care and used in accordance with the conditions specified by the welding consumable manufacturer. NOTE This is particularly important where baking and drying are specified. Electrodes, filler wires and rods and fluxes that show signs of damage or deterioration, such as cracked or flaked coating, rusting or dirty electrode wire, shall not be used.

NOTE 1 This may be carried out before or after forming operations. Where thermal cutting is employed precautions shall be taken to ensure that the edges are not adversely influenced by hardening. NOTE 2 For some materials this will involve preheating prior to cutting.

The cut edges of ferritic steel which are cut by the thermal process, shall be dressed back by grinding or machining if required by the WPS.

The surface to be welded shall be thoroughly cleaned of oxide, scale, oil grease or other foreign substance and shall be free of defects such as inclusions, cracks and laminations to avoid any detrimental effect on weld quality. The tack welds shall be removed or fused again in the weld bead see Note 3. In both cases, the manufacturer shall take all precautions so that the tack welding or temporary attachment or a combination of these does not generate metallurgical or homogeneity defects.

NOTE 3 It is permissible to use tack welds and incorporate them into the final weld provided they have been made to an approved welding procedure by approved welders. Where single sided welds are being used, the manufacturer shall ensure that the alignment and the gap of the edges to be welded will be adequate to assure the required penetration at the weld root. During the whole welding operation, the edges to be welded shall be held so that the alignment tolerances defined in 5.

Depending on the weld process, after each weld run, the slag shall be removed and the weld cleaned and the surface defects removed to obtain the proper quality of weld metal. Unless the welding process used provides effective and sound penetration, the second side of a welded joint shall be removed back to sound metal using a mechanical or thermal process or by grinding.

Arc strikes on pressure vessel parts outside the weld preparation shall be avoided. Where arc strikes occurs accidentally the affected area including the heat affected area shall be repaired in accordance with A record shall be maintained of which welder or welding operator has carried out each weld. NOTE This may be by marking each weld with a welder identification mark or alternatively by means of records which assure traceability of the welder to his work throughout the construction of the pressure vessel.

Temporary attachments shall be removed using a technique which does not affect the properties of the metal of the pressure part to which they are welded. Care shall to be taken that the area of the removed attachment is free of surface cracks. Repair shall be carried out in a accordance with The preheating temperature shall be determined by taking into consideration the composition, and thickness of the metal being welded, the welding process being used and the arc parameters.

The preheating temperature specified in the WPS shall be adhered to when tack welding and during the entire welding operation. Adherence to the preheating temperature shall be continuously monitored with suitable measuring instruments or temperature indicating crayons. Production test plates apply only to governing shell-longitudinal and —circumferential welds see EN Specific requirements apply to vessels and vessel parts made of thermo-mechanically rolled steels group 2.

See 8. NOTE When a vessel includes one or more longitudinal welds the test plates should wherever practicable be attached to the shell plate on one end of the weld so that the edges to be welded in the test plate are a continuation and duplication of the corresponding edges of the longitudinal welds.

The weld metal should be deposited in the test plates continuously with the welding of the corresponding longitudinal weld so that the welding process, procedure and technique are the same. When it is necessary to weld the test plates separately, the procedure used should duplicate that used in the construction of the vessel. Where difficulties are encountered with electro slag welds in transferring from welds with different curvatures e.

When the test plates are required for circumferential welds they shall be welded separately from the vessel providing the technique used in their preparation duplicates as far as possible the procedure used in the welding of the appropriate welds of the vessel. This is dependent upon the material, the length of welded joints, the thickness, post weld heat treatment PWHT and the joint coefficient for each qualified weld procedure.

Special provisions are given for testing group 4. The actual testing of production test plates is dependent on the material and the thickness. Additional specific impact testing requirements are also addressed below. These requirements are summarised in table 8. Where a test plate is required by c to f below then the impact specimens may be cut from the test plate along with the other required test specimens.

Where a test plate is not required by c to e then a short test plate sufficient in length only to obtain the required impact tests plus any allowance for retests shall be produced at a frequency of one test plate per vessel welded to the same procedure as the longitudinal welds. Where a number of similar vessels are welded at the same time, to the same welding procedure using the same batch of welding consumables, they may be represented by one production test for impact tests up to a maximum of 25 m of longitudinal weld by agreement of the responsible parties, as appropriate.

Table 8.

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DIN EN 13445-1:2017-12

The manufacturer in selecting an appropriate weld detail should give consideration to: a the method of manufacture; the service conditions e. Other weld details may be used. NOTE 1 Annex A of EN gives figures of the joints in finished condition, design requirements mainly on geometry, a list of applicable testing groups, recommendations for prevention of lamellar tearing and corrosion. These details show sound and commonly accepted practice. It is not intended that these are considered mandatory or should restrict development of welding technology any way and as a result other suitable weld details may be used. For the pressure retaining welds of a pressure vessel this shall be achieved by performing welding procedure approval tests in accordance with EN ISO or by preproduction tests in accordance with EN ISO

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