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They have also defined different cultural systems of behaviors and practices based on their emergence in different parts of the world, which in turn gave birth to different forms of religions. If we further look at this, almost all religions have subdivisions. There was only one Buddha, yet today there are 32 sects of Buddhism.
There was only one Jesus Christ, but there are 72 sects of Christianity. There was only one Prophet Mohammed, but there are so many sects of Islam with each claiming they are the real one.
So, how did these different religions with different schools of thought emerge? If we do a deep dive into each of these religions, we would observe that there is a particular set of practices and beliefs defined by a prophet or saint and preached to the people of those times. The descendants of the people started practicing these beliefs in different parts of the world and slowly started identifying their belief system with a name.
For example: the believers of the teachings of Jesus Christ identified themselves to Christianity, believers in Mohammaden identified themselves as Islam and so on. There are so many because it is coming from a tradition of thousands of years. So as many saints came that many schools of philosophy developed. So far so good. But, if we really think about it the actual purpose, the root cause from where all these beliefs were defined was humanity, which somehow started getting more and more ignorant, when people started fighting in the name of their religions and their belief systems, affecting all fields of society, be it politics or to an extent to the acts of terrorism.
Religion is like the banana skin and spirituality is the banana inside. One must truly believe that none of these beliefs hold false as they were all started to serve humanity.
The spiritual outcome of all these diverse religions, the banana inside the skin, is same, only the skin is different. However, once the skin is peeled off, the banana Spirituality unites people of all religions. That is the one Universal Religion. Let us understand this by considering a simple example of mathematics.
When one is added to zero or two is subtracted from three, the final result is the number one in both the cases.
However, the methods of deriving at it are completely different. But, did the number one seize to be number one, because it came from two completely different methods, one being addition, the other being subtraction? Similarly, though the methods of realizing god through spirituality might have been defined differently in different religious beliefs, the end result is same.
Let us consider another mathematics example to understand this. Remember that childhood math problem on percentage? Now, what was the first step we performed while solving these kind of problems? Our first step was Assumption. We assumed: Let the total number of books in shelf B be We knew the answer is not But, we still assumed it.
The innocence of not understanding the variability of algebras, led us to assume the answer to be when we were kids. However, as we grew up, we knew how to identify a problem without assigning it a constant assumed value. But, it is important to have faith in the assumptions initially, though on a gross or on a subtle level. Now if you carefully go through these religious books, you will see that there is a vast amount of science and math encrypted within the scriptures.
Similarly, the mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan — was open about his religious beliefs and their influence on his mathematical work. He claimed that the goddess Namagiri helped him to intuit solutions to mathematical problems. Likewise, Jagadish Chandra Bose — , a theoretical physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist, and archaeologist, who worked on radio waves, saw the Hindu idea of unity reflected in the study of nature.
Every science must end where it finds a unity, because we cannot go any farther; when a perfect unity is reached, that science has nothing more of principles to tell us. Take any science — chemistry for example.
Suppose we can find one element out of which we can manufacture all other elements. Then, chemistry, as a science, will have become perfect. So with religion. We cannot go beyond that. Our work lies in working it out and applying it to every part of our lives. Probably, the religious books are just referential text books which are our guide to discover and explore new things that interconnect science and spirituality.
Some may argue that thinking of science and spirituality going together is irrational. But, I say, the very existence of science and its principles — who controls it? I think it is irrational to believe that all the physics, chemistry and biology which is so systematically arranged in this vast universe, is just there by itself, without someone controlling it.
For some people, universe is the controller, for some an infinite formless being is the controller and some believe there is an infinite superior consciousness existing everywhere controlling everything. However, these are just my own personal views. I might be wrong in this. When it comes to so much of encryption and science, with so much of data from so many scriptures, I think, going by the hot trend of this decade, Analytics is the one of the many good ways of decrypting the knowledge, understanding it and drawing accurate insights out of it.
Being an analyst myself in my profession, this is my sincere attempt, to understand spirituality based on findings and interpretations of the already existing religious teachings.
Now, when it comes to analytical understanding of religion and spirituality, one of the greatest works done in this regard was by Adi Shankaracharya who was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian born in the village of Kaladi in Kerala, who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
He was prodigious and mastered the Vedas by the age of eight and went in search of a Guru towards the north, and is believed to have met Govinda Bhagavadpada by the River Narmada.
Shankara studied Veda and Vedanta and took formal renunciation from him. By the age of sixteen, Shankara had accomplished all he wished by way of education and spiritual learning. His mission from then on was twofold: to consolidate the Advaita tradition and to revitalize the Vedic practices. He toured across the country and debated with scholars wherever he went to establish Advaita. Each Veda is divided into two sections: the karma-kanda, which is the ritualistic portion, and the jnana-kanda, which deals with philosophy.
These two are also expanded into four sections: the Samhita Mantra , Brahmana, Aranyaka, and the Upanishad. This division represents a progressive evolution from karma ritual and sacrifices to jnana meditation and knowledge.
Together, they enable a human being to realize all the purusarthas — dharma, artha, kama and moksa — to lead a fulfilled life here in this world, and liberation from transmigration, which is the summum bonnum of human life. Vedas are the ultimate authority and all other scriptural texts are based on them. Shankara stated that the twofold Vedic religion of works and renunciation can maintain order in the universe. The Upanishads are the fountainhead of Vedic vision and wisdom, and are said to be the grand finale of the Vedas.
They are mystical, expressing the insights of the sages into Reality, and therefore, abstract in nature. In this method, Reality Advaita lit. If we try to understand this in relation to the current world of analytics, we gather the data worldy karmic knowledge, prepare an analytical model adhyasa by superimposing the final one result on the data gathered, test the results through careful following of instructions in sruti and smrti scriptures and finally arrive at the end result — the summum bonnum of human life.
The classic example of superimposition is mistaking mother-of-pearl for silver or mistaking a rope for a snake. The shining quality is common to silver and to mother-of-pearl while a coiled rope, because of its thickness, colour and length, appears like a serpent, when there is insufficient light.
Shankara explains here that philosophical investigation can proceed only from the natural level of human engagement in the world involving all the faculties that contribute to the process of acquiring knowledge.
The process of inquiry has to begin and proceed at the level of duality. It is also known as avidya. The non-dual Brahman which is unmanifest becomes manifest in association with maya. In the process, Brahman, which is nirguna, becomes saguna.
Maya is defined as the power sakti of Isvara as it brings about the manifestation of the universe. Maya has two aspects: the power of concealment avarana and the power of projection viksepa , with which it brings about the appearance of the universe.
Shankara uses the term prakriti also for maya, when it is described as being made up of the three qualities gunas — sattva, rajas and tamas. Prakriti is responsible for the materiality of the universe. This can be understood from the example of the light from the sun or moon assuming the shape of the object on which it falls. Otherwise, as light, it is undifferentiated. Similarly, it is the non-dual Brahman that appears as the diverse manifestation, just as the sun appearing as many when reflected in different water bodies.
The other metaphysical category is the individual soul JIVA. The Upanishad states that the jiva is a conglomerate of the five sheaths panchakoshas , that envelop and conceal the self Atman and by the process of negation of these sheaths, one by one, it unravels the self Atman within, and identifies the self as Brahman.
From the outermost to the innermost, they are the food sheath annamaya-kosa ; the vital sheath which is the life-force pranamaya-kosa ; the mental sheath manomaya kosha ; the knowledge sheath vigyanamaya-kosa ; and the blissful sheath anandmaya kosa.
Shankara explains that ignorant people like us identify ourselves with the body, senses, mind, intellect and vital force and lose sight of the fact that we are the Self. This is akin to case of a group of ten boys who, after swimming across a river, counted themselves to find out whether they had all reached the other bank safely. One of them, while counting, left himself out and found to his dismay that they were only nine.
Only when he was told that he was the tenth did he realize he had forgotten to count himself. His identification with the objective world and his body-mind-intellect personality is so complete that he becomes lost to his own true identity and it requires a conscious effort to discover his true identity as the Self within.
Another method of the subjective approach is by an analysis of the three states of human consciousness: waking, dream and sleep. The Self is unaffected by them all, and transcends the three states of waking, dream and sleep, and this state of consciousness is called TURIYA. Metaphorically, it is called the fourth state to distinguish it from the other three. The fourth state is considered to be that which is not conscious of the internal or external world, nor a mass of consciousness, nor simple consciousness, nor unconsciousness, un-inferable, unthinkable, indescribable, whose valid proof consists in the single belief in the Self, in which all phenomena cease; and which is unchanging, auspicious and non-dual — in short a state of Samadhi..
The relationship between Isvara, jagat and jiva is said to be relatively eternal, and it can be transcended only in the case of the individual jiva by liberation, which is regaining the state of non-duality of the Self. Shankara states that the perception of subject-object distinction duality involved in the process of knowledge is due to superimposition of the not-Self object on the Self subject.
The methodology adopted in the Upanishads is a dialogue between the preceptor and his disciple, and is also couched in stories and examples of other seekers of truth. This makes it imperative that the scriptures be studied under a Guru who has experienced it because he can guide his disciple from personal experience.
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