With few exceptions e. The narratives range in length from jokes delivered in a short sentence or two e. As Adam Olearius p. He therefore decided to withdraw from society, erase the delirious things he had written, and take a penitent vow of silence for the rest of his life.
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With few exceptions e. The narratives range in length from jokes delivered in a short sentence or two e. As Adam Olearius p. He therefore decided to withdraw from society, erase the delirious things he had written, and take a penitent vow of silence for the rest of his life. However, an old friend comes to visit and is vexed by this unsociable behavior. Style and Criticism. A few stories even seem to clash with the theme of the chapter in which they are set.
He argued that many of its stories lack significance pp. Even though judging it unsuitable as a manual of ethics pp. It addresses a general audience, though some few passages have caused confusion for copyists and provoked debate among commentators e. Some European commentators found the bawdier passages in shocking contrast to the wisdom and moralistic intentions of the work, but generally excused this apparent vulgarity as a difference in occidental and oriental manners de Sacy, p.
Despite the appearance of one line from Asadi G59; Yusofi, pp. In India, the commentaries were written in Persian, the earliest by Oways b. In , Sir William Jones pp. Sprenger, Calcutta, ; ed. Nassau Lee, Calcutta, , and two other editions appended glossaries ed.
Johnson, Hertford, ; ed. Platts, London, Following this, Georgius Gentius produced a Latin version accompanied by the Persian text Duisberg based a Dutch version Prose and verse translations were offered by Edward Eastwick and Edwin Arnold ; on translations, see Arberry, pp. Henry David Thoreau knew it by , quoting from it twice in Concord River and in his closing remarks on philanthropy in Walden. Many western translators found tales with homosexual or pederastic themes chap.
An excellent summary of the text is given in Yohannan , pp. The text is well attested in many other 14th century exemplars, and probably several hundred pre-modern copies survive in various locations. Marshall mentions one manuscript Marshall, p.
Several other Europeans printed or lithographed editions in Calcutta in the early 19th century, thus effectively bringing the manuscript tradition to an end Gladwin, ; Dumoulin, Rustam M. Alieva used manuscripts in the Soviet Union to prepare his edition and translation It includes extensive notes, indices, and bibliography. Alieva, ed. Studies and Translations. Edwin Arnold, tr. Idem, tr. Georgius Gentius, Rosarium Politicum, Amsterdam, William Jones, Grammar of Persian, London, Adam Olearius, Persianischer Rosenthal, Hamburg, Louis Piat, tr.
Hamelin, ed. Edward Rehatsek, tr. James Ross, tr. Bayer, ed. Iran V, pp. Idem, History of Iranian Literature, ed. Jahn, Dordrecht, , pp. Graz, , pp. George Michael Wickens, introduction, The Gulistan, tr. Edward Rehatsek, New York, John D. XI, Fasc.
Miniature from Golestan. Herat, Chester Beatty Library , Dublin; workshops of Baysunghur. There the friend gathered up flowers to take back to town. Take a leaf from my flower-garden. A flower endures but five or six days But this flower-garden is always delightful. The Manners of Kings 2.
Golestan Saadi Persian Text Pdf