He became privatdozent at Budapest in In the next year, under the auspices of the Hungarian government, he began a journey through Syria , Palestine and Egypt , and took the opportunity of attending lectures of Muslim sheiks in the mosque of al-Azhar in Cairo. This journal was later published in German as Tagebuch. My ideal was to elevate Judaism to a similar rational level.
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Christianity never imposed itself 13 on the Arabs and they had no opportunity to fight against its doctrines sword in hand. Nabigha, Append. Qays entrusts his son, who was to revenge him, not only with such precious legacies as his weapons and horses, but also with his pots qudur : Agk. The commentators conclude un justly from B. Jihad, no. J S Ibn Hisham, p. I1]5, n XLVII fi. Guidi, pp. Ibn Higham, p. This is true e. N6ldeke, Geschichte des Korans, p. XXXV, p.
Combine with this saying a verse by Jarir referring to later times, quoted by alMubarrad, p. II, p. Noldeke, Dieghassanischen Fursten,-p. Malik, divorced his wife and married the wife of a Bedouin: Agh.
It would be wrong to suppose that the exercise of this virtue had its source merely in the semi-conscious instincts of a half savage people; it was regulated and disciplined by perfectly fixed traditional legal ideas. The social intercourse of the ancient Arabs was based on the principle of right and equity.
Such a saying indicates a conscious striving for justice in the higher sense and it inspired at an early date high esteem for the strong sense for justice of the society from which it emanated. Our 1 Naturally the loan word din and not the old Arab word which sounds the same.
Zuhayr Of refusal of protection it is said: Hudhayl. Nijldeke gewidmet, I, pp. XLIII, Similarly, a is attributedto Salama b. Islamic teaching was not opposed to a large part of the Arab system of virtuesi-in particular Islam incorporated into its own teaching" the moving loyalty of the Arabs towards those seeking 15 protection.
Nevertheless there were decisive and basic points in the moral teaching of the Jahiliyya to which Islam was in almost irreconcilable contrast. IX, pp. Kitiib al-Bayiin. Majiilis al. Nawawiyya, BiiHiq , PP 57 fi.
I AI-Hadirae Diwanus, ed. Engelmann, p. Lyall, ]; on another custom belonging here, ct. Freytag, Einleitung in das Studium dey arab. Sp"ache, p. Adab, no. S Under the influence of Islamic views several definitions of the muruwwa came into being, which to a greater or lesser extent preserved old Arabic points but which were by and large deeply influenced by religion; see al-Muba.
Briinnow, pp. Some of these definitions express a sure consciousness of the contrast between pagan virtues and what Muslims understood by virtue. There were pietists who understood by muruwwa in Islam the diligent reading of the Koran and frequent visits to mosques Iqd, I. Fares, in Ene. Kremer, Culturgeschichte des Orients, II, p. The pre-Islamic Arabs had no more barbarous views about retaliation for insults than any of the most cultured peoples of antiquity.
Revenge and the requital of good 1 scope of morality for them. In a famous poem he boasts that his tribe endeavours to outdo in brutality all who treat them badly. Zuhayr-a man with a strong sense of justice-praises a hero for the fact that he repays injustice with injustice and that he acts unjustly even when he himself has not been attacked; 2 poem which heads the heroic poems in the collection of the Ifamasa the poet Qurayt b.
Unayf rails at the members of his tribe for forgiving injustice done to them and requiting evil with good. Examples of such sayings by early Arabic heroes and poets could be considerably amplified: anybody versed in Arabic literature can add a number of texts to those quoted above.
It has already been hinted that in Islamic times, too, this view was expressed by circles who adhered to the traditions of the Jahiliyya.
Goldziher - Muslim Studies 1
Christianity never imposed itself 13 on the Arabs and they had no opportunity to fight against its doctrines sword in hand. Nabigha, Append. Qays entrusts his son, who was to revenge him, not only with such precious legacies as his weapons and horses, but also with his pots qudur : Agk. The commentators conclude un justly from B. Jihad, no. J S Ibn Hisham, p. I1]5, n