A collection of tales teaching political wisdom, it transcended languages, cultures and religions. Then the man will think that he has made a great discovery. Articles with Spanish-language external links. In the middle of the swamp was a city called Aydazinun. Kalila wa-Dimna When he gets rid of the third cat, we will stop our destruction completely.
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Sayyed Kamal Hajj Sayyed Javadi, 2 vols. Beatrice F. Paris, Biblio- thfcque Nationals no. This volume contains two Pers. Browne, London, Hans Robert Roemer, Wiesbaden, ; ed. John E. Mazzaoui and Vera B. Moreen, eds.. The fables were translated into many lan- guages, undergoing significant changes in both form and content.
The Sanskrit original and several significant early translations have not survived. In Sanskrit literature the story cycle is known as Pancatantra, while it was often called Fables ofBidpoim early modem Europe, i. Redactions and circulation. The com- plex relations between the extant New Persian versions, a lost Sanskrit original, and a lost Middle Persian trans- lation have been studied since , when the German ladologist Theodor Benfey , a pioneer of comparative folklore studies, published a translation of extant Sanskrit versions of the Pancatantra lit.
OHvelie, pp. The scholarly construction of the migration of an Indian story cycle into Near and Middle Eastern languages has received considerable attention, because the project touches oh the fundamental question of how to conceive of national and international literary histories if narrative traditions have moved freely between Indo-Iranian and Semitic languages.
Two philological approaches dominate the research. Johannes Hertel ; q. The circulation of Kalila wa Demna in Persian literature documents how Iran mediated the diffusion of knowledge between the Indian subcontinent and the Mediterranean.
The oldest extant versions of the story cycle are preserved in Syriac and Arabic, and originate from the 6th and 8th century, respectively, as translations of a lost Middle Per- sian version. Benfey was the first to note that the inde- pendent Arabic and Syriac translations of a lost Middle Persian version provide the only terminus ad quem for a lost Sanskrit original Kalilag und Damnag, p.
The state of research regarding the Sanskrit Pancatantra is beyond the scope of this entry, but it should be noted that most Sanskrit scholars still assume the existence of a sin- gle Sanskrit original Urtext compiled by a single author, although absolutely nothing is known about this author Brinkhaus, pp. In the Jdtaka tales about the former lives of the Buddha and in the historical epic Mahdbhdrata, animal fables have long served religious and didactic purposes.
Major recensions. The three preserved New Per- sian translations originated between the 10th and 12th centuries, and are based on the Arabic version of Ebn al-Moqaffac b. Yaltkaya and Bilge, II, col. This observation can be related to the Sah- nama by Perdowsi b. Harun b. R5havayh d. Zakeri, p. Ahmad r. Afterwards Rudaki de Blois, pp. In the 12th century Mohammad b. ICanlari and RowSan; cf. Minovi; cf. Mohammad al-Bokari wrote his prose version for Sayf-al-Din Gazi r. Mohammad QaneM Tusi turned it into a mathnawi ed.
KaSefi d. Jomhuri; ed. Fakr Tabatabal or in a Persian purged of all Arabic words ed. Ajudani; see plate i. Since in Iranian stud- ies Persian literature is valued as a central component of Iranian identity, every answer to the question of how to connect the dots between a lost Middle Persian translation and the extant Persian versions is fraught with potential pitfalls.
As a philologist, de Blois considers a lost Middle Persian translation the prototype of all subsequent versions of Kalila wa Demna p. He supposes that the lost Mid- dle Persian translation was "a work consistent in style and intention" p. On the other hand, premodern Muslim societies were linguistically diverse, because they com- prised ethnically and religiously diverse communities.
The long entries on Kalila wa Demna in the bibliographies of Nadim and Katip Celebi document that in the Islamic lands, between the 10th and the 17th century, readers could choose between different versions in several languages.
It seems more appropriate—though difficult to visualize in a two-dimensional stemma—to suppose that influence among the Syriac, Arabic, Middle Persian, Persian, and Sanskrit versions was both multi-directional and repeated cf. The older Syriac translation ed. Schulthess is contem- porary with its source, a lost Middle Persian version. Few manuscripts of the older and the younger Syriac translations are known Brockelmann, pp.
Schulthess and the 11th century ed. The much larger number of manuscripts of the Arabic version by Ebn al-Moqaffac for a survey of just 30 Arabic manuscripts, see de Blois, pp. GAL I, pp. Aya Sofya [AS]; ed. Minovi, p. This manuscript is almost years older than that which Louis Cheikho had found in a Melkite monastery in Lebanon MS arab. Wilfred Madelung apud de Blois, p. The continued demand among Arabic reading audiences for copies of Kalila wa Demna seems to explain why the fables were among the first typeset Arabic books printed in the Near East.
Cheikho, p. Although this version was written for a Thrkish patron in norther Iraq, Katip gelebi ed. Yaltkaya and Bilge, II, cols. It is noteworthy that both Persian manuscripts pre- date the earliest dated manuscripts of their Arabic source.
But books are always also valued for reasons other than their theological and artistic merits, and people do not only collect books that they actually read.
A manuscript whose content was recognized to be an important work of literature might still be kept around, even though it did not any longer serve as reading matter. The geographical distribution and movement of all known manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Syriac, and Sanskrit remains to be ana- lyzed, yet the better survival of early Persian Kalila wa Demna manuscripts seems to reflect the rising importance of Persian as formal literary language outside the Iranian lands from the 12th century onwards.
A comprehensive interpretation of the Arabic and Persian manuscript evidence, which includes a consider- able number of illustrated manuscripts see iii, below , is impossible until reliable and statistically significant data become available, especially regarding the survival rates of religious and secular literature on the one hand and of illus- trated manuscripts on the other. The practice of enhanc- ing Kalila wa Demna books with images for illustrated Islamic mss.
Minorsky, p. Arabic and Persian versions printed in the Near East before indicate that expensive versions of illustrated Kalila wa Demna books continued to be pro- duced after the advent of large-scale commercial printing in the Islamic lands after Miniature by Roman Strekalovsky, color pi.
In the s a simplified version for children was printed twice in a three volume series with the title Afclaq-e asasi in Tehran Mohammadi and Q5yeniT I, pp. This edition has been repeatedly reprinted, while copies of the 1st edition are extremely rare. The renowned intellectual Taha liosayn con- tributed a foreword pp. The popularity of Kaiila wa Dernna is attested by many references in Arabic and Persian sources, but mention of the fables and their frame-tale in literature must be distinguished from historical information about the origins of the story cycle.
The wise Indian king Dabeglim asked the philosopher Bidpay to tell him stories about important aspects of statecraft. In an exhaustive study of the frame- tale tradition, de Blois established five variations of this frame-tale pp. Olivelle, xii; cf. Brinkhaus, pp. For it is salient that, in other classical works of Persian literature, the frame-tale is treated as a literary device for creating cohesion between otherwise unconnected stories, even if the work features a historical character, such as the Sasanian king Bahrain V Gor r.
Visual evidence Raby; cf, Marshak , such as the murals in Panjikant q. In the second half of the 10th century, Nadim tracked the books known in the Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in a systematic bibliography.
Both sources provide snapshots of the Arabic and Persian books in circulation. They are valuable historical evidence, because they are finding aids, independent of interpreta- tion. Farzan and Mahdavi-Damgani about the editions by Qarib and Minovi. The entry, however, provides a vivid impression of the large variety of known, although not necessarily extant, versions. The remainder of the entry is reserved for a survey of translators and patrons, from the Arabic version by Ebn al-Moqaffac to the Otto- man versions composed by his contemporaries.
Yaltkaya and Bilge, n, col. Flugel, V, p. In addition, the reader finds cross-references under Anwar-e Sohayli ed. Eleanor Sims in Grube, , pp. This divi- sion reflected that among European orientalists, toward the end of the 17th century, Ottoman plate ni and Persian literature was much better known than Arabic literature because Ottoman and Persian were the administrative lan- guages of the Ottomans and the Safavids.
Already in the first partial translation of Anwar-e Sohayli became available to French reading audiences, when Les fables de Pilpay: Phitosophie indien, ou la conduite des rois was published in Paris, 2 Literature.
In the older Sah-nama preface Qazwini, pp. Minorsky, pp. In other words, for Abu Mansur Kalila wa Demna serves as a precedent for his own work. The origin of Kalila wa Demna offers yet another occasion to examine arulefsbehavior toward his courtiers.
Passing references to Kalila wa Demna in Persian litera- ture indicate that the fables were so popular that its content had become proverbial. Original size of plate XVII, Geneva, , pi.
Category:Kalila and Dimna
On War and Peace: The story of the crows and the owls 4. He, along with his moralizing sidekick named Karataka, conspire to break up alliances and friendships of the lion king. A series of fables describe the conspiracies and causes that lead to close and inseparable friends breaking up. It is a collection of adventures of four characters: a crow scavenger, not a predator, airborne habits , a mouse tiny, underground habits , a turtle slow, water habits and a deer a grazing animal viewed by other animals as prey, land habits.
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