MOLARITY MOLALITY NORMALITY PDF

By Roberta C. Barbalace The quantitative relationship between chemical substances in a reaction is known as stoichiometry. Avogadro was a pioneer in this field of chemistry. Avogadro hypothesized that there was a specific number that would represent the number of atoms or molecules in a mole of that atom or molecule. The weight of that unit known as a mole would be equivalent to the atomic or molecular weight of the atom or molecule in grams.

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By Roberta C. Barbalace The quantitative relationship between chemical substances in a reaction is known as stoichiometry. Avogadro was a pioneer in this field of chemistry. Avogadro hypothesized that there was a specific number that would represent the number of atoms or molecules in a mole of that atom or molecule. The weight of that unit known as a mole would be equivalent to the atomic or molecular weight of the atom or molecule in grams.

According to this theory, one mole of carbon would have a mass of 12 grams because carbon has an atomic weight of 12 6 neutrons and 6 protons. One mole of hydrogen would weigh one gram and would contain the same number of atoms as one mole of carbon. The magical number was, in fact, discovered to be 6. It was named the Avogadro Number in honor of the father of stoichiometry even though he did not actually determine the exact number.

The modern definition of a mole is as follows: Exactly one mole represents the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of the carbon isotope. For an atom a mole represents 6. For a molecular compound, one mole represents 6. One could even take it to extremes and say that one mole of bananas is equal to 6. Now you might ask, "what relevance does the Avogadro number have for me?

On the other hand, it is totally useless as a unit of measure for bananas. One atom or even ten atoms are too small for an individual to measure out in a lab. A mole of a substance equals the gram-formula mass or the gram-molar mass. This equals the sum of all of the masses of all the elements in the formula of the substance.

Basically, if one were to count all of the carbon atoms in one one mole of carbon, there would be 6. Using the information above, it is possible to calculate concentrations of solutions and make up solutions of desired concentration.

It is also possible to use this information to determine how much of a given base would be needed in order to neutralize a specific acid and reach a pH of 7. There are five units of concentration that are particularly useful to chemists. The first three: molality, molarity and normality are dependant upon the mole unit. The last two: percent by volume and percent by weight have nothing to do with mole, only weight or volume of the solute or substance to be diluted, versus the weight or volume of the solvent or substance in which the solute is diluted.

Percentages can also be determined for solids within solids. Molality: The molal unit is not used nearly as frequently as the molar unit. A molality is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent. Be careful not to confuse molality and molarity.

Molality is represented by a small "m," whereas molarity is represented by an upper case "M. One liter of water has a specific gravity of 1. Most other solvents have a specific gravity greater than or less than one. Therefore, one liter of anything other than water is not likely to occupy a liter of space. To make a one molal aqueous water solution of sodium chloride NaCl , measure out one kilogram of water and add one mole of the solute, NaCl to it.

The atomic weight of sodium is 23 and the atomic weight of chlorine is Therefore the formula weight for NaCl is 58, and 58 grams of NaCl dissolved in 1kg water would result in a 1 molal solution of NaCl. Molarity: The molar unit is probably the most commonly used chemical unit of measurement.

Molarity is the number of moles of a solute dissolved in a liter of solution. A molar solution of sodium chloride is made by placing 1 mole of a solute into a 1-liter volumetric flask. Taking data from the example above we will use 58 grams of sodium chloride. Water is then added to the volumetric flask up to the one liter line. The result is a one molar solution of sodium chloride. Normality: There is a relationship between normality and molarity.

Normality can only be calculated when we deal with reactions, because normality is a function of equivalents. The example below uses potassium hydroxide KOH to neutralize arsenic acid. By studying the reaction it is possible to determine the proton exchange number to determine the normality of the arsenic acid. You probably remember that when a hydrogen atom is ionized and loses its electron, you are left with only a proton.

So a hydrogen ion is basically a proton. Normality is particularly useful in titrations calculations. Percentages can be determined as percent by weight or percent by volume.

In order to bring the total quantity to 1 kg, it would be necessary to add g water. Percent by volume: Solutions based on percent by volume are calculated the same as for percent by weight, except that calculations are based on volume. Percentages are used more in the technological fields of chemistry such as environmental technologies than they are in pure chemistry.

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Molarity, Molality and Normality

Instead of mole solute per kilogram solvent as in the binary case, units are defined as mole solute per kilogram mixed solvent. The earliest known use of the intensive property molality and of its adjectival unit, the now-deprecated molal, appears to have been published by G. Lewis and M. Unit[ edit ] The SI unit for molality is moles per kilogram of solvent. Usage considerations[ edit ] Advantages The primary advantage of using molality as a measure of concentration is that molality only depends on the masses of solute and solvent, which are unaffected by variations in temperature and pressure. In contrast, solutions prepared volumetrically e. In many applications, this is a significant advantage because the mass, or the amount, of a substance is often more important than its volume e.

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