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It has the Flamsteed designation 87 Tauri as the 87th star in the constellation of approximately 7th magnitude or brighter, ordered by right ascension. It also has the Bright Star Catalogue number , the HD number , and the Hipparcos catalogue number , mostly seen in scientific publications.
It is a variable star listed in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars , but it is listed using its Bayer designation and does not have a separate variable star designation. A series of 49 occultations occurred starting on 29 January and ending at 3 September Australia or South Africa can never observe an Aldebaran occultation since it is too far south of the ecliptic.
A reasonably accurate estimate for the diameter of Aldebaran was obtained during the occultation of 22 September Aldebaran is the red dot to the right, barely visible in the thumbnail. This, as well as observations of the changing positions of stars Sirius and Arcturus , led to the discovery of proper motion.
This star was shown to be itself a close double star by S. However, the companion discovered by Burnham had almost exactly the same proper motion as Aldebaran, suggesting that the two formed a wide binary star system.
In , Edward C. Pickering at the Harvard College Observatory used a photographic plate to capture fifty absorption lines in the spectrum of Aldebaran. This became part of the Draper Catalogue , published in Vogel and his assistant Julius Scheiner. The collapse of the centre of the star into a degenerate helium core has ignited a shell of hydrogen outside the core and Aldebaran is now on the red giant branch RGB. It has a surface gravity of 1. Measurements by the Hipparcos satellite and other sources put Aldebaran around The angular diameter of Aldebaran has been measured many times.
The value adopted as part of the Gaia benchmark calibration is The General Catalogue of Variable Stars indicates variation between apparent magnitude 0. However, small scale magnetic fields may still be present in the lower atmosphere, resulting from convection turbulence near the surface. The measured strength of the magnetic field on Aldebaran is 0. This region lies at about 2. The spectrum reveals lines of carbon monoxide , water , and titanium oxide.
These double star components were given upper-case Latin letter designations more or less in the order of their discovery, with the letter A reserved for the primary star. Some characteristics of these components, including their position relative to Aldebaran, are shown in the table.