ARISTOLOCHIA LONGA PDF

The book cited three ancient authorities on the uses of "birthwoorte": Pedanius Dioscorides, Galen —c. Round Birthwoorte serveth for all these things, and also the rest of the other poisons: it is likewise available against the stuffing of the lungs, the hicket, the shakings or shiverings of agues, hardness of the milt or spleene, burstings, cramps and convolutions, paines of the sides, if it be drunk with water. It plucketh out thornes, splinters, and shivers, and being mixed in plaisters, or pulteses, it draweth foorth scales or bones, removeth rottennesse and corruption, mundifieth and scoureth foule and filthie ulcers, and filleth them up with new flesh, if it be mixed with Ireos and honey. Galen saith, that branched Birthwoort is of a more sweete and pleasant smell: it therefore is used in ointments; but it is weaker in operations than the former ones. Birthwoort as Plinie writeth being drunk with water is a moste excellent remedie for crampes and convulsions, burses, and for such as have fallen from high places. It is good for them that are short winded, and troubled with falling sickness.

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The book cited three ancient authorities on the uses of "birthwoorte": Pedanius Dioscorides, Galen —c. Round Birthwoorte serveth for all these things, and also the rest of the other poisons: it is likewise available against the stuffing of the lungs, the hicket, the shakings or shiverings of agues, hardness of the milt or spleene, burstings, cramps and convolutions, paines of the sides, if it be drunk with water.

It plucketh out thornes, splinters, and shivers, and being mixed in plaisters, or pulteses, it draweth foorth scales or bones, removeth rottennesse and corruption, mundifieth and scoureth foule and filthie ulcers, and filleth them up with new flesh, if it be mixed with Ireos and honey.

Galen saith, that branched Birthwoort is of a more sweete and pleasant smell: it therefore is used in ointments; but it is weaker in operations than the former ones. Birthwoort as Plinie writeth being drunk with water is a moste excellent remedie for crampes and convulsions, burses, and for such as have fallen from high places. It is good for them that are short winded, and troubled with falling sickness.

The rounde Aristolochia doth beautifie, clense, and saften the teeth, if they be often frosted or rubbed with the powder thereof. Starting as early as the s, European colonists, calling the plant "Virginia snakeroot", used it to treat snakebite. Butte affirms it is a depressant to the sensory nerve centres and is useful in neuralgia and pruritis; it was formerly considered alexiteric, antiparalytic, antiperiodic and aphrodisiac.

It is often given in combination with Peruvian Bark [i. It is also used in North America, as are several other varieties of the species, as an alexiteric and for the bites of mad dogs. In the oldest skeptical organization in the world, Vereniging tegen de Kwakzalverij VtdK, the Dutch Association Against Quackery , had already warned against pills with birthwort as a form of quackery , and described them as "pills made of nothing", but added that they "contain nothing harmful".

In , Mathieu Orfila , the father of modern toxicology, reported that Aristolochia was lethal to dogs. In reality the herbal supplements contained Aristolochia fangchi, and as a result, more than out of its patients developed kidney failure.

Several also developed urothelial and kidney cancers, and 39 had to undergo kidney transplants. Because TCM allows for the substitution of identically- or similarly-named plants, plants that are botanically unrelated may be substituted. It is much more likely that isolated cases will go unnoticed, as happened with ephedra , and it could take years to identify a common cause.

People failed to recognize the nephrotoxic effects of Aristolochia in spite of its use in many cultures worldwide over thousands of years. In an interview, [Arthur P. All of the great civilizations have used it. And not one reported its toxicity until the Belgians did 20 years ago. This conclusion was based upon sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity of AA in animals and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity of herbal remedies containing Aristolochia in humans.

This conclusion was based on additional sufficient evidence showing that extracts of plants containing AA are carcinogenic to animals, as well as limited evidence that AA itself is carcinogenic to humans.

Asarum species contain AA [41] [40] and also contain AA analogs. It has been demonstrated that AA is sequestered in the caterpillars, and retained in the adult butterflies, making them unpalatable to most predators mainly birds. It has been found that introduced South American A. Continuing usage[ edit ] In , two years after the US FDA issued warnings about herbal remedies containing AA, it was reported that 19 herbal products were available over the internet with Aristolochia as a stated ingredient, and 95 additional products were suspected to contain AA.

In other languages, however, there are many herbalist sites that actively recommend birthwort as a treament for all sorts of things. It is used to treat cancer, skin infections, and diabetes. Knowledge of toxicity among herbalists was limited and administered doses were often "very high". AA I was previously detected in A. It is prepared from caterpillars of the butterfly Battus polydamas, which feeds on the leaves of A. It is also found in Pakistan. It is used for treatment of parasitic worms, snakebite, inducing menstruation, and for childbirth.

It has so many possible applications that it would take entire tomes to describe them. One of the more popular herbal medicine books, The Herb Book by John Lust, [85] was reprinted in , and has not been revised since its initial publication in Though there is a warning on usage of A.

Since , Hawaii Pharm has been selling a tincture containing A.

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Aristolochia fontanesii

Learn how and when to remove this template message The species Aristolochia clematitis was highly regarded as a medicinal plant since the ancient Egyptians , Greeks and Romans , and on to until the Early Modern era; it also plays a role in traditional Chinese medicine. Due to its resemblance to the uterus, the doctrine of signatures held that birthwort was useful in childbirth. A preparation was given to women upon delivery to expel the placenta , as noted by the herbalist Dioscurides in the 1st century AD. Despite its presence in ancient medicine, Aristolochia is known to contain the lethal toxin aristolochic acid. The Chinese government currently lists the following Aristolochia herbs: A. In traditional Chinese medicine Aristolochia species are used for certain forms of acute arthritis and edema.

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