It is not a legal requirement to adopt the Burra Charter guidelines, however they are well entrenched in policy. The Burra Charter defines the basic principles and procedures to be followed in the conservation of heritage places. It does not prescribe the techniques to be used or the manner in which a heritage place should be cared for. These principles and procedures can be applied to a monument, building, garden, shell midden, rock art site, road, mining or archaeological site, or to a whole region.
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Values-Based Management and the Burra Charter: , , Richard Mackay The Burra Charter offers a framework for heritage management in which multiple—sometimes conflicting—heritage and other values can be understood and explicitly addressed. The Burra Charter has been amended in and in response to developing practice and awareness of intangible attributes and the legitimate expectations of associated communities.
Three Sydney-area case studies are presented, which have contrasting values and heritage outcomes—Luna Park, a s amusement park; the BIG DIG archaeological site in The Rocks; and a suburban land development at East Leppington—illustrating a shift in heritage management models from traditional fabric-centered approaches toward more holistic and innovative conservation solutions.
Values-based heritage management provides a basis for good decision making for cultural heritage places. This approach makes it possible to discern relative priorities such as an overarching objective to retain important attributes while responding to applicable site constraints, resource limitations, or statutory requirements.
One of the key factors in the success of the charter, which has been widely used in Australia and internationally, is that its core values-based premise has proven to be extremely flexible and applicable to a broad range of places and changing circumstances. The Charter of Athens incorporated seminal concepts, including the need for expertise and critique, the appropriateness of modern materials, importance of the setting, and statutory protection, but it had a strong focus on architecture, archaeology, and the fabric of historic monuments.
Itself an artifact of its time, the Venice Charter is strongly focused on archaeological site conservation and the restoration of architectural monuments. It was for this reason that during the early years of Australia ICOMOS, energies were focused on the development of a new bespoke doctrinal document for conservation practice—one that reflected the nature, multifaceted values, and circumstances of Australian cultural heritage places.
Accessed November 16, The Burra Charter is a dynamic document that has evolved to reflect changes to professional practice and emerging issues. The challenges confronted by cultural heritage conservation practitioners and decision makers also change over time and have increasingly included broader societal considerations. Amendments to the original Burra Charter in and have responded accordingly by developing methodologies that engage with emergent issues, such as growing awareness of intangible attributes and the legitimate expectations of associated communities, to become more engaged in decision making for heritage, which is recognized and valued as a public asset.
The fundamental values-based principles and logical sequence of processes of the Burra Charter, and its format and presentation, have not altered Mackay Citation: Mackay, Richard. The resulting conservation policies and heritage management models have moved away from traditional fabric-centered approaches, which emerged in Europe during the mid-twentieth century, toward more holistic and innovative conservation solutions.
This broader, more inclusive view of both values and people is apparent from the outset, in Article 1. Cultural significance is embodied in the place itself, its fabric, setting, use, associations, meanings, records, related places and related objects. Places may have a range of values for different individuals or groups. The changes made to the Burra Charter in were directed primarily at standards of practice and also include development of a range of associated Practice Notes, which provide specific guidance on the application of the Burra Charter to matters ranging from Indigenous cultural heritage to new work at a heritage place or place interpretation Australia ICOMOS bCitation: Australia ICOMOS.
Burra Charter Practice Notes. These guidelines, some of which are now in effect, with others still being prepared by Australia ICOMOS, provide evidence of the multiple types of place and variety of projects to which the Burra Charter may apply.
The charter is not without critics; some for instance suggest that there is an overreliance on intrinsic values of places Zancheti et al. Uses of Heritage. London: Routledge. While these are relevant and valid questions, such critiques typically originate from academic perspectives and are not always grounded in real experience or the actual local cultural context of the charter at work. There are instructive examples of the charter used effectively, in different cultural and community contexts, to assess, conserve, and manage a broad range of places with both tangible and intangible attributes, including as part of the Living with Heritage, Heritage Management Framework, and Tourism Management Plan projects at Angkor, Cambodia Mackay and Lloyd Citation: Mackay, Richard, and Georgina Lloyd.
New York: Springer. Archaeological Sites: Conservation and Management. Readings in Conservation Series. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute. The values-based approach of the Burra Charter is encapsulated in a simple and logical process, which is: Understand significance understand the place and assess cultural significance ; Determine policy identify all factors and issues, develop policy, prepare a management plan ; Manage in accordance with policy implement the management plan, monitor the results, and review the plan.
This process is summarized in the simple steps shown in fig. The Burra Charter process: steps in planning for and managing a place of cultural significance.
First drafted in , the Burra Charter turns forty this year. It has been a remarkably influential and enduring heritage charter, both in Australia and internationally. Will the Burra Charter inspire or restrain conservation in the future? The Burra Charter has been applied not just to buildings but to city landmarks, memorials, trees , gardens, parks , historic and archeological sites and countless urban, suburban and regional places across Australia.
Forty years of the Burra Charter and Australia’s heritage vision
The main body of copper ore formed between two geological faults in broken dolomite rocks. The malachite and azurite were formed from copper sulphide minerals, by a process known as " secondary enrichment ". This process took millions of years to convert the low grade copper sulphide ore, which was probably created to millions of years ago during the last period of vulcanism near Burra. From at least the collection of townships near the mine became referred to as "The Burra". The name Burra Burra has been asserted to have come from numerous sources. As early as July , when the locality was already a sheep outstation for pastoralist William Peter of Manoora, it was known as Burrow Creek. A Burra Burra mine is located in Tennessee and named after the Australian one.
Burra, South Australia