DUAL LATEROLOG PDF

Thousands of them were run each year all over the world. Since then, new logging methods have been developed to measure values much closer to Rxo and Rt. Nevertheless, the conventional ES logs consisting of SP; in. Because new information can often be obtained by reinterpreting old ES logs, this chapter includes discussion of the principles and responses of the ES measurements. The first resistivity devices were the normals and laterals. Current is injected in the formation from a single electrode and returned to a point remote from the well.

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For the deep measurement both measure and focusing currents returned to a remote electrode on the surface; thus, the depth of investigation was greatly improved and the effect of borehole conductivity and of adjacent formations was red uced. In the shallow laterolog, the return electrodes that measured the bucking currents were located on the sonde and the current sheet thus retained focus over a shorter distance than the deep laterolog.

The Dual Laterolog had a response range of 0. The DLL was useful for igneous environments e. However, in upper crustal environments seismic Layers 2A and 2B , the resistivities are usually low enough that the DIT can be used. The depth of investigation of the laterolog depended on the resistivity of the rock and on the resistivity contrast between the zone invaded by the drilling fluid and the virgin uninvaded zone. The vertical resolution of both LLd and LLs depended on the geometry defined by the focusing electrodes: this is about 2 ft 61 cm.

Applications Porosity. Fracture porosity. This could be estimated from the separation between the deep and shallow measurements based on the observation that the former was sensitive to the presence of horizontal conductive features only, while the latter responded to both horizontal and vertical conductive structures.

Environmental Effects For the LLD, the borehole effect was small for hole diameters up to 16 in, while the LLS provided good readings in holes not exceeding 12 in. Corrections were available for holes up to 20 in 25 cm in diameter. Tool Specifications.

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Induction logging

However, to illustrate induction-tool fundamentals, it is instructive to first examine the basic building block of multiple-coil arrays, the two-coil sonde. Typical coil separations range from 1 to 10 ft apart. In practice, each coil can consist of from several to or more turns, with the exact number of turns determined by engineering considerations. The operating frequency of commercial induction tools is in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz range, with 20 kHz being the most commonly used frequency before

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Dual Laterolog

For the deep measurement both measure and focusing currents returned to a remote electrode on the surface; thus, the depth of investigation was greatly improved and the effect of borehole conductivity and of adjacent formations was red uced. In the shallow laterolog, the return electrodes that measured the bucking currents were located on the sonde and the current sheet thus retained focus over a shorter distance than the deep laterolog. The Dual Laterolog had a response range of 0. The DLL was useful for igneous environments e.

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