Easily hallellujah your music lists with friends, students, and the world. Retrieved 17 December To send to more than one person, separate addresses with a comma. Again Judas rallies the people Sound an alarm and insists that the pagan altars must be destroyed and that false religions must be resisted. If you do not wish to be contacted, leave it blank.
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Early life[ edit ] Judah was the third son of Mattathias the Hasmonean , a Jewish priest from the village of Modiin. Several explanations have been put forward for this surname.
One suggestion is that the name derives from the Aramaic maqqaba "makebet" in modern Hebrew , "hammer" or "sledgehammer" cf. Others believe it is in reference to his weapon of choice. Exodus The strategy enabled Judah to win a string of victories. At the battle of Nahal el-Haramiah wadi haramia , he defeated a small Seleucid force under the command of Apollonius, governor of Samaria , who was killed. After Nahal el-Haramiah, recruits flocked to the Jewish cause. Judah from Die Bibel in Bildern Shortly thereafter, Judah routed a larger Seleucid army under the command of Seron near Beth-Horon , largely thanks to a good choice of battlefield.
This force was dispatched by Lysias , whom Antiochus left as viceroy after departing on a campaign against the Parthians. By a forced night march, Judah succeeded in eluding Gorgias, who had intended to attack and destroy the Jewish forces in their camp with his cavalry. While Gorgias was searching for him in the mountains, Judah made a surprise attack upon the Seleucid camp and defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Emmaus.
The Seleucid commander had no alternative but to withdraw to the coast. The defeat at Emmaus convinced Lysias that he must prepare for a serious and prolonged war.
He accordingly assembled a new and larger army and marched with it on Judea from the south via Idumea. After several years of conflict Judah drove out his foes from Jerusalem, except for the garrison in the citadel of Acra. The reconsecration of the Temple became a permanent Jewish holiday, Hanukkah , which continued even after the Temple was destroyed in 70 CE. Hanukkah is still celebrated annually. The liberation of Jerusalem was the first step on the road to ultimate independence.
After Jerusalem[ edit ] Judea under Judah Maccabee Upon hearing the news that the Jewish communities in Gilead , Transjordan , and Galilee were under attack by neighboring Greek cities, Judah immediately went to their aid. Judah sent his brother, Simeon, to Galilee at the head of 3, men; Simeon proceeded to successfully fulfill his task, achieving numerous victories and transplanted a substantial portion of the Jewish settlements, including women and children, to Judea.
Judah personally led the campaign in Transjordan, taking with him his brother Jonathan. After fierce fighting, he defeated the Transjordanian tribes and rescued the Jews concentrated in fortified towns in Gilead.
The Jewish population of the areas taken by the Maccabees was evacuated to Judea. Judah then laid siege to the Seleucid garrison at the Acra , the Seleucid citadel of Jerusalem. The besieged, who included not only Syrian-Greek troops but also Hellenistic Jews, appealed for help to Lysias, who effectively became the regent of the young king Antiochus V Eupator after the death of Antiochus Epiphanes at the end of BCE during the Parthian campaign.
Lysias together with Eupator set out for a new campaign in Judea. Lysias skirted Judea as he had done in his first campaign, entering it from the south, and besieged Beth-Zur.
Judah raised the siege of the Acra and went to meet Lysias. In the Battle of Beth-zechariah , south of Bethlehem , the Seleucids achieved their first major victory over the Maccabees, and Judah was forced to withdraw to Jerusalem.
Beth-Zur was compelled to surrender and Lysias reached Jerusalem, laying siege to the city. The defenders found themselves in a precarious situation because their provisions were exhausted, it being a sabbatical year during which the fields were left uncultivated. Lysias decided to propose a peaceful settlement, which was concluded at the end of BCE. The terms of peace were based on the restoration of religious freedom, the permission for the Jews to live in accordance with their own laws, and the official return of the Temple to the Jews.
Lysias defeated Philip, only to be overthrown by Demetrius , son of the late Seleucus IV Philopator ; returned from years as a hostage in Rome. Demetrius appointed Alcimus Jakim , a Hellenist Jew, as high priest, a choice the Hasidim Pietists might have accepted since he was of priestly descent. The influence of the Hellenizers all but collapsed in the wake of the Seleucid defeat. The Hellenizing High Priest Menelaus was removed from office and executed.
His successor was another Hellenizer Alcimus. When Alcimus executed sixty priests who were opposed to him, he found himself in open conflict with the Maccabees. Alcimus fled from Jerusalem and went to the Seleucid king, asking for help. Declaring himself the rightful king, he captured and killed Lysias and Antiochus Eupator, taking the throne.
It was thus Demetrius to whom the delegation led by Alcimus, complained of the persecution of the Hellenist party in Judea. Soon after, it was necessary for the Seleucid Army to return to Antioch because of the turbulent political situation. The annual "Day of Nicanor" was instituted to commemorate this victory. It was the first recorded contract between the Jewish people and the Romans. However, Judah decided to stand his ground. In the Battle of Elasa , Judah and those who remained faithful to him were killed.
His body was taken by his brothers from the battlefield and buried in the family sepulchre at Modiin. The death of Judah Maccabee d. In the arts[ edit ] Preth century[ edit ] As warrior hero and national liberator, Judah Maccabee has inspired many writers, and several artists and composers.
In the Divine Comedy , Dante sees his spirit in the Heaven of Mars with the other "heroes of the true faith". Most significant works dedicated solely to him date from the 17th century onwards.
Handel wrote his Judas Maccabaeus oratorio on the subject. Giuda Macabeo, ossia la morte di Nicanore One of the best-known literary works on the theme is Judas Maccabaeus , a five-act verse tragedy by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Church and Richmond Seeley. In addition, the American writer Howard Fast penned the historical novel , My Glorious Brothers , which was published in , during the — Palestine war. During World War II the Swiss-German writer Karl Boxler published his novel Judas Makkabaeus; ein Kleinvolk kaempft um Glaube und Heimat , the subtitle of which suggests that Swiss democrats then drew a parallel between their own national hero, William Tell , and the leader of the Maccabean revolt against foreign tyranny.
The modern play Playing Dreidel with Judah Maccabee by Edward Einhorn is about a contemporary boy who meets the historical figure. He figures in a tenth-century illustrated manuscript Libri Maccabaeorum. The late medieval French artist Jean Fouquet painted an illustration of Judah triumphing over his enemies for his famous manuscript of Josephus.
He therefore offers prayers and an expiatory sacrifice for these warriors who have died in a state of sin. During the Counter-Reformation the passage was used by Catholics against Protestants in order to justify the doctrine of purgatory. Accordingly, Rubens painted the scene for the Chapel of the Dead in Tournai cathedral.
Music[ edit ] In music, almost all the compositions inspired by the Hasmonean rebellion revolve around Judah. In , the composer George Frideric Handel composed his oratorio Judas Maccabeus , putting the biblical story in the context of the Jacobite rising of Mirah refers to Judah Maccabee in her song "Jerusalem".
Handel: Judas Maccabaeus, HWV 63
FOLIO: Hallelujah, Amen - From "Judas Maccabaeus"
Judas Maccabaeus, HWV 63 (George Frideric Handel)