The Proeme M any miracles worth relating and to be contemplated do offer themselves when I begin to describe heavy and light. And these things may be applied to very necessary and profitable uses, and if any man shall more deeply consider these things, he may invent many new things. That may be employed for very profitable ends. Next after these follow wind instruments, that are almost from the same reason. Chapter I "That heavy things do not descend in the same degree of gravity, nor light things ascend.
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He was the third of four sons and the second to survive childhood, having an older brother Gian Vincenzo and a younger brother Gian Ferrante. His father had a thirst for learning, a trait he would pass on to all of his children. He surrounded himself with distinguished people and entertained the likes of philosophers, mathematicians, poets, and musicians. The atmosphere of the house resembled an academy for his sons. The members of the learned circle of friends stimulated the boys, tutoring and mentoring them, under strict guidance of their father.
In addition to having talents for the sciences and mathematics, all the brothers were also extremely interested in the arts, music in particular. Despite their interest none of them possessed any sort of talent for it, but they did not allow that to stifle their progress in learning of theory. They were all accepted into the Scuola di Pitagora , a highly exclusive academy of musicians. More aware of their social position than the idea that his sons could have professions in science, Nardo Antonio raised the boys more as gentlemen than as scholars.
Therefore, the boys struggled to learn to sing, as that was considered a courtly accomplishment of gentlemen.
They were taught to dance, ride, to perform well in tournaments and games, and to dress well. The training gave della Porta, at least earlier in his life, a taste for the finer aspects of privileged living. In it he described the first known digraphic substitution cipher. Mendelsohn commented: He was, in my opinion, the outstanding cryptographer of the Renaissance. Some unknown who worked in a hidden room behind closed doors may possibly have surpassed him in general grasp of the subject, but among those whose work can be studied he towers like a giant.
During the Spanish Inquisition, some of his friends were imprisoned. At the gate of the prison, everything was checked except for eggs. Della Porta wrote messages on the egg shell using a mixture made of plant pigments and alum.
The ink penetrated the egg shell which is semi-porous. When the egg shell was dry, he boiled the egg in hot water and the ink on the outside of the egg was washed away. When the recipient in prison peeled off the shell, the message was revealed once again on the egg white. This influenced the Swiss eighteenth-century pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater as well as the 19th century criminologist Cesare Lombroso. Della Porta wrote extensively on a wide spectrum of subjects throughout his life — for instance, an agricultural encyclopedia entitled "Villa" as well as works on meteorology , optics , and astronomy.
Phytognomonica, In , on the eve of the early modern Scientific Revolution, della Porta became the first person to attack in print, on experimental grounds, the ancient assertion that garlic could disempower magnets. This was an early example of the authority of early authors being replaced by experiment as the backing for a scientific assertion.
His work Phytognomonica lists plants according to their geographical location. In Phytognomonica the first observation of fungal spores is recorded, making him a pioneer of mycology.
His private museum was visited by travelers and was one of the earliest examples of natural history museums. It inspired the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher to begin a similar, even more renowned, collection in Rome. Pioneering scientific society[ edit ] Della Porta was the founder of a scientific society called the Academia Secretorum Naturae Accademia dei Segreti.
This group was more commonly known as the Otiosi, Men of Leisure. Founded sometime before , the Otiosi were one of the first scientific societies in Europe and their aim was to study the "secrets of nature. The Academia Secretorum Naturae was compelled to disband when its members were suspected of dealing with the Occult. Though he personally emerged from the meeting unscathed, the Academia Secretorum Naturae disbanded.
Despite this incident, della Porta remained religiously devout and became a lay Jesuit brother. Technological contributions[ edit ] Chemical apparatus for a still from De distillatione, His interest in a variety of disciplines resulted in the technological advances of the following: agriculture , hydraulics , Military Engineering , instruments , and pharmacology.
He published a book in on raising water by the force of the air. In he published a book on military engineering, and another on distillation. Additionally, della Porta perfected the camera obscura.
In a later edition of his Natural Magic , della Porta described this device as having a convex lens. Though he was not the inventor, the popularity of this work helped spread knowledge of it. He compared the shape of the human eye to the lens in his camera obscura, and provided an easily understandable example of how light could bring images into the eye.
Della Porta also claimed to have invented the first telescope , but died while preparing the treatise De telescopiis in support of his claim. In the book, della Porta also mentioned an imaginary device known as a sympathetic telegraph. The device consisted of two circular boxes, similar to compasses, each with a magnetic needle, supposed to be magnetized by the same lodestone. Each box was to be labeled with the 26 letters, instead of the usual directions.
Della Porta assumed that this would coordinate the needles such that when a letter was dialed in one box, the needle in the other box would swing to point to the same letter, thereby helping in communicating. He was forced to disband his Academia Secretorum Naturae, and in his philosophical works were prohibited from further publication by the Church; the ban was lifted in Playwright[ edit ] The 17 theatrical works that have survived from a total of perhaps 21 or 23 works  comprise 14 comedies , one tragicomedy , one tragedy and one liturgical drama.
Indeed, the masks of the improvised theatre evolved as stylised versions of recurring character types in the written comedies. The term parasito was translated by John Florio in his Italian to English Dictionary first published in  as a smell-feast, a flatterer, a parasite, a trencherd or bellie friend, one that saieth and doeth all things to please the humor of another, and agreeth unto him in all things to have his repast scotfree.
Perhaps the best example of the type is Morfeo in the comedy La Fantesca. Works[ edit ] Le commedie edition , full pdf Natural Magic expanded to 20 books in English translation Available online at  De furtivis Literarum Notis On secret codes and cryptography Villa —92 Agricultural encyclopedia De refractione optices On Optics Elementorum curvilineorum libri duo Coelestis Physiogranonia pub.
Naples De occultis literarum notis Venice Giovanni Battista Della Porta De humana physiognomonia. Vico Equense: Giuseppe Cacchi. Giovanni Battista Della Porta Pneumaticorum libri tres.
Napoli: Giovanni Giacomo Carlino. De distillatione. Roma: Stamperia Camerale. Della chirofisonomia. Napoli: Antonio Bulifon. Le commedie. Bari: Vincenzo Spampanato; Laterza. Portae Neapolitani Magiae naturalis libri XX Chemical Heritage Magazine. Chemical Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 24 March
Natural Magick in Twenty Books
He was the third of four sons and the second to survive childhood, having an older brother Gian Vincenzo and a younger brother Gian Ferrante. His father had a thirst for learning, a trait he would pass on to all of his children. He surrounded himself with distinguished people and entertained the likes of philosophers, mathematicians, poets, and musicians. The atmosphere of the house resembled an academy for his sons. The members of the learned circle of friends stimulated the boys, tutoring and mentoring them, under strict guidance of their father. In addition to having talents for the sciences and mathematics, all the brothers were also extremely interested in the arts, music in particular. Despite their interest none of them possessed any sort of talent for it, but they did not allow that to stifle their progress in learning of theory.
Giambattista della Porta
Shakam May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. How to burn Copper. A Rose, as also the flower Jasmine to be of a yellow-colour. Eggs laid that stink. The Chaos, wherein the Experiments are set down without any Classical Order. Birds are not to be eaten. Onions may be made sweeter.
Natural Magick (1958)